Month: May 2021

Too Lazy to Read the Paper: Episode 6 with Gourab Ghoshal and Petter Holme

I’ve got a treat for you today. Today’s author’s are Gourab Ghoshal and Petter Holme, who are here to talk about a classic paper. A paper they co-authored and published in PRL in 2006. The paper has a fantastic title, which is basically also a mini abstract. It is called “Dynamics of Networking Agents Competing for High Centrality and Low Degree” (1). In the podcast we get into it!

Gourab is at at Rochester University, where he is an Associate Professor of Physics and Astronomy with joint appointments at the departments of Computer Science and Mathematics. He works in the field of Complex Systems. His research interests are in the theory and applications of Complex Networks as well as Non-equilibrium Statistical Physics, Game theory, Econophysics, Dynamical Systems and the Origins of Life.

Petter is Swedish scientist living and working in Japan, where he is a Specially Appointed Professor at the Institute of Innovative Research at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. His research focuses on large-scale structures in society, technology and biology; mostly trying to understand them as networks.

Read the full article at: toolazy.buzzsprout.com

Emergence in artificial life

Carlos Gershenson
Concepts similar to emergence have been used since antiquity, but we lack an agreed definition of emergence. Still, emergence has been identified as one of the features of complex systems. Most would agree on the statement “life is complex”. Thus, understanding emergence and complexity should benefit the study of living systems. It can be said that life emerges from the interactions of complex molecules. But how useful is this to understand living systems? Artificial life (ALife) has been developed in recent decades to study life using a synthetic approach: build it to understand it. ALife systems are not so complex, be them soft (simulations), hard (robots), or wet (protocells). Then, we can aim at first understanding emergence in ALife, for then using this knowledge in biology. I argue that to understand emergence and life, it becomes useful to use information as a framework. In a general sense, emergence can be defined as information that is not present at one scale but is present at another scale. This perspective avoids problems of studying emergence from a materialistic framework, and can be useful to study self-organization and complexity.

Read the full article at: arxiv.org

Perverse Downstream Consequences of Debunking: Being Corrected by Another User for Posting False Political News Increases Subsequent Sharing of Low Quality, Partisan, and Toxic Content in a Twitter…

Mohsen Mosleh, Cameron Martel, Dean Eckles, David Rand

A prominent approach to combating online misinformation is to debunk false content. Here we investigate downstream consequences of social corrections on users’ subsequent sharing of other content. Being corrected might make users more attentive to accuracy, thus improving their subsequent sharing. Alternatively, corrections might not improve subsequent sharing – or even backfire – by making users feel defensive, or by shifting their attention away from accuracy (e.g., towards various social factors). We identified N=2,000 users who shared false political news on Twitter, and replied to their false tweets with links to fact-checking websites. We find causal evidence that being corrected decreases the quality, and increases the partisan slant and language toxicity, of the users’ subsequent retweets (but has no significant effect on primary tweets). This suggests that being publicly corrected by another user shifts one’s attention away from accuracy – presenting an important challenge for social correction approaches.

https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3411764.3445642

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Finance 4.0 – Towards a Socio-Ecological Finance System – A Participatory Framework to Promote Sustainability

Dapp, Marcus M., Helbing, Dirk, Klauser, Stefan (Eds.)

This Open Access book outlines ideas for a novel, scalable and, above all, sustainable financial system.

We all know that today’s global markets are unsustainable and global governance is not effective enough. Given this situation, could one boost smart human coordination, sustainability and resilience by tweaking society at its core: the monetary system? A Computational Social Science team at ETH Zürich has indeed worked on a concept and little demonstrator for a new financial system, called “Finance 4.0” or just “FIN4”, which combines blockchain technology with the Internet of Things (“IoT”).

What if communities could reward sustainable actions by issuing their own money (“tokens”)? Would people behave differently, when various externalities became visible and were actionable through cryptographic tokens? Could a novel, participatory, multi-dimensional financial system be created? Could it be run by the people for the people and lead to more societal resilience than today’s financial system (which is effectively one-dimensional due to its almost frictionless exchange)? How could one manage such a system in an ethical and democratic way?

This book presents some early attempts in a nascent field, but provides a fresh view on what cryptoeconomic systems could do for us, for a circular economy, and for scalable, sustainable action.

Read the full book at: www.springer.com