Month: January 2020

Phase transitions in information spreading on structured populations

Davis, Jessica, Perra, Nicola, Zhang, Qian, Moreno, Yamir and Vespignani, Alessandro (2020) Phase transitions in information spreading on structured populations. Nature Physics. ISSN 1745-2473 (Print), 1745-2481 (Online) (In Press)

 

Mathematical models of social contagion that incorporate networks of human interactions have become increasingly popular, however, very few approaches have tackled the challenges of including complex and realistic properties of socio-technical systems. In this work we define a framework to characterize the dynamics of the Maki-Thompson rumor spreading model in structured populations, and analytically find a previously uncharacterized dynamical phase transition that separates the local and global contagion regimes. We validate our threshold prediction through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, we apply this framework in two real-world systems, the European commuting and transportation network and the Digital Bibliography and Library Project (DBLP) collaboration network. Our findings highlight the importance of the underlying population structure in understanding social contagion phenomena and have the potential to define new intervention strategies aimed at hindering or facilitating the diffusion of information in socio-technical systems.

Source: gala.gre.ac.uk

Dualities and non-Abelian mechanics

Michel Fruchart, Yujie Zhou & Vincenzo Vitelli 
Nature volume 577, pages 636–640 (2020)

 

Dualities are mathematical mappings that reveal links between apparently unrelated systems in virtually every branch of physics1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. Systems mapped onto themselves by a duality transformation are called self-dual and exhibit remarkable properties, as exemplified by the scale invariance of an Ising magnet at the critical point. Here we show how dualities can enhance the symmetries of a dynamical matrix (or Hamiltonian), enabling the design of metamaterials with emergent properties that escape a standard group theory analysis. As an illustration, we consider twisted kagome lattices9,10,11,12,13,14,15, reconfigurable mechanical structures that change shape by means of a collapse mechanism9. We observe that pairs of distinct configurations along the mechanism exhibit the same vibrational spectrum and related elastic moduli. We show that these puzzling properties arise from a duality between pairs of configurations on either side of a mechanical critical point. The critical point corresponds to a self-dual structure with isotropic elasticity even in the absence of spatial symmetries and a twofold-degenerate spectrum over the entire Brillouin zone. The spectral degeneracy originates from a version of Kramers’ theorem16,17 in which fermionic time-reversal invariance is replaced by a hidden symmetry emerging at the self-dual point. The normal modes of the self-dual systems exhibit non-Abelian geometric phases18,19 that affect the semiclassical propagation of wavepackets20, leading to non-commuting mechanical responses. Our results hold promise for holonomic computation21 and mechanical spintronics by allowing on-the-fly manipulation of synthetic spins carried by phonons.

Source: www.nature.com

Prosociality in the economic Dictator Game is associated with less parochialism and greater willingness to vote for intergroup compromise

Mohsen Mosleh. Alexander J. Stewart, Joshua B. Plotkin, David G. Rand

 

http://journal.sjdm.org/19/190814/jdm190814.pdf

 

Is prosociality parochial or universalist? To shed light on this issue, we examine the relationship between the amount of money given to a stranger (giving in an incentivized Dictator Game) and intergroup attitudes and behavior in the context of randomly assigned teams (a minimal group paradigm) among N = 4,846 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers. Using a set of Dynamic Identity Diffusion Index measures, we find that participants who give more in the Dictator Game show less preferential identification with their team relative to the other team, and more identification with all participants regardless of team. Furthermore, in an incentivized Voter Game, participants who give more in the Dictator Game are more likely to support compromise by voting for the opposing team in order to avoid deadlock. Together, these results suggest that – at least in this subject pool and using these measures – prosociality is better characterized by universalism than parochialism.

 

Keywords: Prosociality, Dictator Game, Ingroup Bias, Intergroup Attitude

Source: journal.sjdm.org

Counterfactual thinking in cooperation dynamics

Moniz Pereira, Luis; Santos, Francisco C.

 

Counterfactual Thinking is a human cognitive ability studied in a wide variety of domains. It captures the process of reasoning about a past event that did not occur, namely what would have happened had this event occurred, or, otherwise, to reason about an event that did occur but what would ensue had it not. Given the wide cognitive empowerment of counterfactual reasoning in the human individual, the question arises of how the presence of individuals with this capability may improve cooperation in populations of self-regarding individuals. Here we propose a mathematical model, grounded on Evolutionary Game Theory, to examine the population dynamics emerging from the interplay between counterfactual thinking and social learning (i.e., individuals that learn from the actions and success of others) whenever the individuals in the population face a collective dilemma. Our results suggest that counterfactual reasoning fosters coordination in collective action problems occurring in large populations, and has a limited impact on cooperation dilemmas in which coordination is not required. Moreover, we show that a small prevalence of individuals resorting to counterfactual thinking is enough to nudge an entire population towards highly cooperative standards.

Source: ui.adsabs.harvard.edu

Phase Transitions in Spatial Connectivity during Influenza Pandemics

Nathan Harding, Richard E Spinney, and Mikhail Prokopenko

Entropy 202022(2), 133

 

We investigated phase transitions in spatial connectivity during influenza pandemics, relating epidemic thresholds to the formation of clusters defined in terms of average infection. We employed a large-scale agent-based model of influenza spread at a national level: the Australian Census-based Epidemic Model (ACEmathsizesmallMod). In using the ACEmathsizesmallMod simulation framework, which leverages the 2016 Australian census data and generates a surrogate population of ≈23.4 million agents, we analysed the spread of simulated epidemics across geographical regions defined according to the Australian Statistical Geography Standard. We considered adjacent geographic regions with above average prevalence to be connected, and the resultant spatial connectivity was then analysed at specific time points of the epidemic. Specifically, we focused on the times when the epidemic prevalence peaks, either nationally (first wave) or at a community level (second wave). Using the percolation theory, we quantified the connectivity and identified critical regimes corresponding to abrupt changes in patterns of the spatial distribution of infection. The analysis of criticality is confirmed by computing Fisher Information in a model-independent way. The results suggest that the post-critical phase is characterised by different spatial patterns of infection developed during the first or second waves (distinguishing urban and rural epidemic peaks).

Source: www.mdpi.com