Despite the frequency with which mixed-species groups are observed in nature, studies of collective behaviour typically focus on single-species groups. Here, we quantify and compare the patterns of interactions between three fish species, threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), ninespine sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) in both single- and mixed-species shoals in the laboratory. Pilot data confirmed that the three species form both single- and mixed-species shoals in the wild. In our laboratory study, we found that single-species groups were more polarized than mixed-species groups, while single-species groups of threespine sticklebacks and roach were more cohesive than mixed shoals of these species. Furthermore, while there was no difference between the inter-individual distances between threespine and ninespine sticklebacks within mixed-species groups, there was some evidence of segregation by species in mixed groups of threespine sticklebacks and roach. There were differences between treatments in mean pairwise transfer entropy, and in particular we identify species-differences in information use within the mixed-species groups, and, similarly, differences in responses to conspecifics and heterospecifics in mixed-species groups. We speculate that differences in the patterns of interactions between species in mixed-species groups may determine patterns of fission and fusion in such groups.
Cohesion, order and information flow in the collective motion of mixed-species shoals
Ashley J. W. Ward , T. M. Schaerf , A. L. J. Burns , J. T. Lizier , E. Crosato , M. Prokopenko and M. M. Webster
Royal Society Open Science
Coordination is ubiquitous in living systems. Existing theoretical models of coordination — from bacteria to brains — focus on either gross statistics in large-scale systems (N→∞) or detailed dynamics in small-scale systems (mostly N=2). Both approaches have proceeded largely independent of each other. The present work bridges this gap with a theoretical model of biological coordination that captures key experimental observations of mid-scale social coordination at multiple levels of description. It also reconciles in a single formulation two well-studied models of large- and small-scale biological coordination (Kuramoto and extended Haken-Kelso-Bunz). The model adds second-order coupling (from extended Haken-Kelso-Bunz) to the Kuramoto model. We show that second-order coupling is indispensable for reproducing empirically observed phenomena and gives rise to a phase transition from mono- to multi-stable coordination across scales. This mono-to-multistable transition connects the emergence and growth of behavioral complexity in small and large systems.
Connecting empirical phenomena and theoretical models of biological coordination across scales
Mengsen Zhang, Christopher Beetle, J. A. Scott Kelso, Emmanuelle Tognoli
Antifragility is a property that enhances the capability of a system in response to external perturbations. Although the concept has been applied in many areas, a practical measure of antifragility has not been developed yet. Here we propose a simply calculable measure of antifragility, based on the change of "satisfaction" before and after adding perturbations, and apply it to random Boolean networks (RBNs). Using the measure, we found that ordered RBNs are the most antifragile. Also, we demonstrate that seven biological systems are antifragile. Our measure and results can be used in various applications of Boolean networks (BNs) including creating antifragile engineering systems, identifying the genetic mechanism of antifragile biological systems, and developing new treatment strategies for various diseases.
Antifragility of Random Boolean Networks
Omar K. Pineda, Hyobin Kim, Carlos Gershenson
Collective memory and attention are sustained by two channels: oral communication (communicative memory) and the physical recording of information (cultural memory). Here, we use data on the citation of academic articles and patents, and on the online attention received by songs, movies and biographies, to describe the temporal decay of the attention received by cultural products. We show that, once we isolate the temporal dimension of the decay, the attention received by cultural products decays following a universal biexponential function. We explain this universality by proposing a mathematical model based on communicative and cultural memory, which fits the data better than previously proposed log-normal and exponential models. Our results reveal that biographies remain in our communicative memory the longest (20–30 years) and music the shortest (about 5.6 years). These findings show that the average attention received by cultural products decays following a universal biexponential function.
The universal decay of collective memory and attention
Cristian Candia, C. Jara-Figueroa, Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert, Albert-László Barabási & César A. Hidalgo
Nature Human Behaviour (2018)
Experience plays a critical role in crafting high-impact scientific work. This is particularly evident in top multidisciplinary journals, where a scientist is unlikely to appear as senior author if he or she has not previously published within the same journal. Here, we develop a quantitative understanding of author order by quantifying this “chaperone effect,” capturing how scientists transition into senior status within a particular publication venue. We illustrate that the chaperone effect has a different magnitude for journals in different branches of science, being more pronounced in medical and biological sciences and weaker in natural sciences. Finally, we show that in the case of high-impact venues, the chaperone effect has significant implications, specifically resulting in a higher average impact relative to papers authored by new principal investigators (PIs). Our findings shed light on the role played by experience in publishing within specific scientific journals, on the paths toward acquiring the necessary experience and expertise, and on the skills required to publish in prestigious venues.
The chaperone effect in scientific publishing
Vedran Sekara, Pierre Deville, Sebastian E. Ahnert, Albert-László Barabási, Roberta Sinatra, and Sune Lehmann
PNAS December 11, 2018 115 (50) 12603-12607