Functional observability and target state estimation in large-scale networks

Arthur N. Montanari, Chao Duan, Luis A. Aguirre, and Adilson E. Motter
PNAS January 4, 2022 119 (1) e2113750119;

Observing the states of a network is fundamental to our ability to explore and control the dynamics of complex natural, social, and technological systems. The problem of determining whether the system is observable has been addressed by network control researchers over the past decade. Progress on the further problem of actually designing and implementing efficient algorithms to infer the states from limited measurements has been hampered by the high dimensionality of large-scale networks. Noting that often only a small number of state variables in a network are essential for control, intervention, and monitoring purposes, this work develops a graph-based theory and highly scalable methods that achieve accurate estimation of target variables of network systems with minimal sensing and computational resources.

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