Introduction to the special issue: quantifying collectivity

Bryan C. Daniels, Manfred D. Laubichler & Jessica C. Flack 

Theory in Biosciences volume 140, pages 321–323 (2021)

Biological systems are diverse, ranging from tightly packed, highly integrated, many-body systems like eukaryotic cells to decentralized microbial biofilms, to relatively small primate groups with on the order of 100 behaviorally flexible individuals all the way to large, complex societies (both insects and human) and ecosystems. This range suggests there is variation in both how collective a system is as well as how it is collective.

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