Gary S. Metcalf and Stuart A. Kauffman
Systems science, cybernetics, and complexity all evolved out of concerns for understanding complex phenomena in science. They also share many of the same theoretical roots, as well as histories which converge across leading figures and places in time. They can be conceived as three realms which shared and competed for prominence. All have influenced and been incorporated into scientific disciplines, though much of the history has been forgotten by current generations. Those historical roots remain relevant and important to future progress in science. This chapter provides a brief summary of the history and foundations of these domains.
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