Mariano Bizzarri, Douglas E. Brash, James Briscoe, Verônica A. Grieneisen, Claudio D. Stern & Michael Levin
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology volume 20, pages261–262(2019)
What does it mean to say that event X caused outcome Y in biology? Explaining the causal structure underlying the dynamic function of living systems is a central goal of biology. Transformative advances in regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering will require efficient strategies to cause desired system-level outcomes. We present a perspective on the need to move beyond the classical ‘necessary and sufficient’ approach to biological causality.