Crowd dynamics have important applications in evacuation management systems relevant to organizing safer large scale gatherings. For crowd safety, it is very important to study the evolution of potential crowd behaviours by simulating the crowd evacuation process. Planning crowd control tasks via studying the impact of crowd behavioural evolution towards evacuation simulation could mitigate the possibility of crowd disasters that may happen. During a typical emergency evacuation scenario, conflict among agents occurs when agents intend to move to the same location as a result of the interaction of agents within their nearest neighbours. The effect of the agent response towards their neighbourhood is vital in order to understand the effect of variation of crowd behaviours towards the whole environment. In this work, we model crowd motion subject to exit congestion under uncertainty conditions in a continuous space via computer simulations. We model best-response, risk-seeking, risk-averse and risk-neutral behaviours of agents via certain game theory notions. We perform computer simulations with heterogeneous populations in order to study the effect of the evolution of agent behaviours towards egress flow under threat conditions. Our simulation results show the relation between the local crowd pressure and the number of injured agents. We observe that when the proportion of agents in a population of risk-seeking agents is increased, the average crowd pressure, average local density and the number of injured agents get increased. Besides that, based on our simulation results, we can infer that crowd disaster could be prevented if the agent population are full of risk-averse and risk-neutral agents despite circumstances that lead to threat consequences.
The Impact of Potential Crowd Behaviours on Emergency Evacuation: An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach
Azhar Mohd Ibrahim , Ibrahim Venkat and De Wilde Philippe
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 22 (1) 3