Although most of wealth and innovation have been the result of human interaction and cooperation, we are not yet able to quantitatively predict the spatial distributions of three main elements of cities: population, roads, and socioeconomic interactions. By a simple model mainly based on spatial attraction and matching growth mechanisms, we reveal that the spatial scaling rules of these three elements are in a consistent framework, which allows us to use any single observation to infer the others. All numerical and theoretical results are consistent with empirical data from ten representative cities. In addition, our model can also provide a general explanation of the origins of the universal super- and sub-linear aggregate scaling laws and accurately predict kilometre-level socioeconomic activity. Our work opens a new avenue for uncovering the evolution of cities in terms of the interplay among urban elements, and it has a broad range of applications.
Simple spatial scaling rules behind complex cities
Ruiqi Li, Lei Dong, Jiang Zhang, Xinran Wang, Wen-Xu Wang, Zengru Di & H. Eugene Stanley
Nature Communications 8, Article number: 1841 (2017)
This book uncovers mathematical structures underlying natural intelligence and applies category theory as a modeling language for understanding human cognition, giving readers new insights into the nature of human thought. In this context, the book explores various topics and questions, such as the human representation of the number system, why our counting ability is different from that which is evident among non-human organisms, and why the idea of zero is so difficult to grasp.
The book is organized into three parts: the first introduces the general reason for studying general structures underlying the human mind; the second part introduces category theory as a modeling language and use it for exposing the deep and fascinating structures underlying human cognition; and the third applies the general principles and ideas of the first two parts to reaching a better understanding of challenging aspects of the human mind such as our understanding of the number system, the metaphorical nature of our thinking and the logic of our unconscious dynamics.
Mathematical Structures of Natural Intelligence
In this paper, to reveal the influence of multilayer network structure on opinion diffusion in social networks, we study an opinion dynamics model based on DeGroot model on multilayer networks. We find that if the influence matrix integrating the information of connectedness for each layer and correlation between layers is strongly connected and aperiodic, all agents’ opinions will reach a consensus. However, if there are stubborn agents in the networks, regular agents’ opinions will finally be confined to the convex combinations of the stubborn agents’. Specifically, if all stubborn agents hold the same opinion, even if the agents only exist on a certain layer, their opinions will diffuse to the entire multilayer networks. This paper not only characterizes the influence of multilayer network topology and agent attribute on opinion diffusion in a holistic way, but also demonstrates the importance of coupling agents which play an indispensable role in some social and economic situations.
Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219525917500151
HAI-BO HU, CANG-HAI LI, and QING-YING MIAO, Advs. Complex Syst. 20, 1750015 (2017) [25 pages]
OPINION DIFFUSION ON MULTILAYER SOCIAL NETWORKS
The slime mould Physarum polycephalum has been used in developing unconventional computing devices for in which the slime mould played a role of a sensing, actuating, and computing device. These devices treated the slime mould rather as an active living substrate yet the slime mould is a self-consistent living creature which evolved for millions of years and occupied most part of the world, but in any case, that living entity did not own true cognition, just automated biochemical mechanisms. To “rehabilitate” the slime mould from the rank of a purely living electronics element to a “creature of thoughts” we are analyzing the cognitive potential of P. polycephalum. We base our theory of minimal cognition of the slime mould on a bottom-up approach, from the biological and biophysical nature of the slime mould and its regulatory systems using frameworks suh as Lyon’s biogenic cognition, Muller, di Primio-Lengeler\’s modifiable pathways, Bateson’s “patterns that connect” framework, Maturana’s autopoetic network, or proto-consciousness and Morgan’s Canon.
Slime mould: the fundamental mechanisms of cognition
Jordi Vallverdu, Oscar Castro, Richard Mayne, Max Talanov, Michael Levin, Frantisek Baluska, Yukio Gunji, Audrey Dussutour, Hector Zenil, Andrew Adamatzky
CAPS 2018 is the second International Conference on Complexity and Policy Studies. This is a cross-disciplinary conference for research in which the tools of Complex Systems are used to examine a wide range of policies and procedures that promote, emphasize, contribute to, improve, or otherwise positively affect society. This scope includes new definitions, measures, and methodologies for tracking, understanding, and predicting impacts and trends, data sets, analytical methods, actors and populations, dynamic models, or social-level analysis.
CAPS 2018: Complexity And Policy Studies
George Mason University – Arlington, VA Campus, USA
April 18 – 20, 2018