This paper aims to establish theoretical foundations of graph product multilayer networks (GPMNs), a family of multilayer networks that can be obtained as a graph product of two or more factor networks. Cartesian, direct (tensor), and strong product operators are considered, and then generalized. We first describe mathematical relationships between GPMNs and their factor networks regarding their degree/strength, adjacency, and Laplacian spectra, and then show that those relationships can still hold for nonsimple and generalized GPMNs. Applications of GPMNs are discussed in three areas: predicting epidemic thresholds, modeling propagation in nontrivial space and time, and analyzing higher-order properties of self-similar networks. Directions of future research are also discussed.
Graph Product Multilayer Networks: Spectral Properties and Applications