Complexity Digest 2010.04

   2010/02/12

Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer


  1. Networking: Four ways to reinvent the Internet, Nature
  2. Feeding the Future, Science
  3. Darwinian Evolution of Prions in Cell Culture, Science
  4. George Whitesides: A lab the size of a postage stamp, TED.com
  5. Simulation-Based Definitions of Emergence, JASSS
  6. The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment, Nature
  7. Gene Doping and Sport, Science
  8. Community detection in graphs, Physics Reports
    1. A Spatial Approach to Network Generation for Three Properties: Degree Distribution, Clustering Coefficient and Degree Assortativity, JASSS
  9. Competition drives cooperation among closely related sperm of deer mice, Nature
  10. The common patterns of nature, Journal of Evolutionary Biology
  11. Complex networks: new trends for the analysis of brain connectivity, arXiv
  12. A Methodology for Complex Social Simulations, JASSS
    1. Bootstrapping Knowledge About Social Phenomena Using Simulation Models, JASSS
    2. Agent-Based Models and Simulations in Economics and Social Sciences: From Conceptual Exploration to Distinct Ways of Experimenting, JASSS
    3. What Do Agent-Based and Equation-Based Modelling Tell Us About Social Conventions: The Clash Between ABM and EBM in a Congestion Game Framework, JASSS
  13. The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations, PLoS ONE
  14. Cooperation and anisogamy, Journal of Theoretical Biology
    1. Altruism in Forest Chimpanzees: The Case of Adoption, PLoS ONE
    2. Feedback, punishment and cooperation in public good experiments, Games and Economic Behavior
    3. Evolution of cooperation in rotating indivisible goods game, Journal of Theoretical Biology
  15. The virtue of vagueness, Nature
  16. Local stability under evolutionary game dynamics, Theoretical Economics
    1. Orders of limits for stationary distributions, stochastic dominance, and stochastic stability, Theoretical Economics
    2. Experimental comparison of multi-stage and one-stage contests, Games and Economic Behavior
    3. Same-Sex Gaze Attraction Influences Mate-Choice Copying in Humans, PLoS ONE
  17. Can Power-Law Scaling and Neuronal Avalanches Arise from Stochastic Dynamics?, PLoS ONE
    1. Evidence of a general 2/3-power law of scaling leaf nitrogen to phosphorus among major plant groups and biomes, Proc. R. Soc. B
  18. Algorithmically independent sequences, Information and Computation
  19. Book Announcements
    1. Language as a Complex Adaptive System, Wiley-Blackwell
    2. Dynamics of Gambling: Origins of Randomness in Mechanical Systems, Springer
    3. Entropy, Search, Complexity, Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    4. Information and Complexity in Statistical Modeling, Springer New York
    5. Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy, Routledge
    6. Cellular Automata Books Repository
  20. Links & Snippets
    1. Other Publications
    2. Conference Announcements
    3. Webcast Announcements
    4. Other Announcements
  1. Networking: Four ways to reinvent the Internet, Nature Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: The Internet is feeling the strain. Developed in the 1970s and 1980s for a community of a few thousand researchers, most of whom knew and trusted one another, the Internet has now become a crucial worldwide infrastructure that connects nearly two billion people, roughly a quarter of humanity. It offers up something like a trillion web pages, and transports roughly 10 billion gigabytes of data a month " a figure that is expected to quadruple by 2012.
    Editor's Note: Researchers are arguing for a radical improvement of the Internet. Bigger and faster servers do not solve problems that require a greater adaptability.
    • Source: Networking: Four ways to reinvent the Internet
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/463602a ], Katharine Gammon, DOI: 10.1038/463602a, Nature 463, 602-604, 2010/02/03

  2. Feeding the Future, Science Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: Feeding the 9 billion people expected to inhabit our planet by 2050 will be an unprecedented challenge. This special issue examines the obstacles to achieving global food security and some promising solutions.
    • Source: Feeding the Future
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.327.5967.797 ], Caroline Ash, Barbara R. Jasny, David A. Malakoff, Andrew M. Sugden, DOI: 10.1126/science.327.5967.797, Science Vol. 327. no. 5967, p. 797, 2010/02/12

  3. Darwinian Evolution of Prions in Cell Culture, Science Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: We found that biologically cloned prion populations gradually became heterogeneous by accumulating "mutants," and selective pressures resulted in the emergence of different mutants as major constituents of the evolving population. Thus, when transferred from brain to cultured cells, "cell-adapted" prions outcompeted their "brain-adapted" counterparts, and the opposite occurred when prions were returned from cells to brain. Similarly, the inhibitor swainsonine selected for a resistant substrain, whereas, in its absence, the susceptible substrain outgrew its resistant counterpart. Prions, albeit devoid of a nucleic acid genome, are thus subject to mutation and selective amplification.
    • Source: Darwinian Evolution of Prions in Cell Culture
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1183218 ], Jiali Li, Shawn Browning, Sukhvir P. Mahal, Anja M. Oelschlegel, Charles Weissmann, DOI: 10.1126/science.1183218, Science Vol. 327. no. 5967, pp. 869 - 872, 2010/02/12

  4. George Whitesides: A lab the size of a postage stamp, TED.com Bookmark and Share

    About this talk: Traditional lab tests for disease diagnosis can be too expensive and cumbersome for the regions most in need. George Whitesides' ingenious answer, at TEDxBoston, is a foolproof tool that can be manufactured at virtually zero cost.
    • Source: George Whitesides: A lab the size of a postage stamp
      [ http://www.ted.com/talks/george_whitesides_a_lab_the_size_of_a_postage_stamp.html ], George Whitesides, TED.com, 2010/02
    • VIDEO - Watch this talk
      [http://www.ted.com/talks/george_whitesides_a_lab_the_size_of_a_postage_stamp.html ]

  5. Simulation-Based Definitions of Emergence, JASSS Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: One approach to characterizing the elusive notion of emergence is to define that a property is emergent if and only if its presence can be derived but only by simulation. In this paper I investigate the pros and cons of this approach, ...
    • Source: Simulation-Based Definitions of Emergence
      [ http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/13/1/9.html ], Baker A, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 13 (1) 9, January 2010
    • Contributed by Segismundo

  6. The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment, Nature Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: To improve understanding of the complex interactions of the climate system, ecosystems, and human activities and conditions, the research community develops and uses scenarios. These scenarios provide plausible descriptions of how the future might unfold in several key areas"socioeconomic, technological and environmental conditions, emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and climate. When applied in climate change research, scenarios help to evaluate uncertainty about human contributions to climate change, the response of the Earth system to human activities, the impacts of a range of future climates, and the implications of different approaches to mitigation (measures to reduce net emissions) and adaptation (actions that facilitate response to new climate conditions).
    • Source: The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08823 ], Richard H. Moss, et al., DOI: 10.1038/nature08823, Nature 463, 747-756, 2010/02/11

  7. Gene Doping and Sport, Science Bookmark and Share

    Summary: We humans have long sought to enhance ourselves beyond normal through cosmetic surgery and drugs. Science is increasingly becoming humanity's partner and handmaiden in those efforts (1) and has added genetic manipulation to our enhancement tool kit. Many forms of human enhancement are becoming more feasible, sought-after, and even justifiable in the quest for healthier, happier, and longer lives.
    • Source: Gene Doping and Sport
      [ http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/327/5966/647 ], Theodore Friedmann, Olivier Rabin, Mark S. Frankel, DOI: 10.1126/science.1177801, Science Vol. 327. no. 5966, pp. 647 - 648, 2010/02/05

  8. Community detection in graphs, Physics Reports Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: One of the most relevant features of graphs representing real systems is community structure, or clustering [...] We will attempt a thorough exposition of the topic, from the definition of the main elements of the problem, to the presentation of most methods developed, [...]
    • Source: Community detection in graphs
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physrep.2009.11.002 ], Fortunato S, DOI: 10.1016/j.physrep.2009.11.002, Physics Reports 486, 3-5: 75-174, February 2010
    • Contributed by Segismundo

    1. A Spatial Approach to Network Generation for Three Properties: Degree Distribution, Clustering Coefficient and Degree Assortativity, JASSS Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: We introduce a spatially constructed algorithm that generates networks with constrained but arbitrary degree distribution, clustering coefficient and assortativity. Both a general approach and specific implementation are presented. The specific implementation is validated and used to generate networks with a constrained but broad range of property values.
      • Source: A Spatial Approach to Network Generation for Three Properties: Degree Distribution, Clustering Coefficient and Degree Assortativity
        [ http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/13/1/11.html ], Badham J, Stocker R, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 13 (1) 11, January 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

  9. Competition drives cooperation among closely related sperm of deer mice, Nature Bookmark and Share

    Summary: Sperm can increase their swimming velocity and gain a competitive advantage over sperm from another male by forming cooperative groups, such that selection should favour cooperation of the most closely related sperm. Sperm of deer mice are now shown to aggregate more often with conspecific than heterospecific sperm, in accordance with this theory, whereas in a monogamous species lacking sperm competition, sperm indiscriminately group with unrelated conspecific sperm.
    • Source: Competition drives cooperation among closely related sperm of deer mice
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08736 ], Heidi S. Fisher & Hopi E. Hoekstra, DOI: 10.1038/nature08736, Nature 463, 801-803, 2010/02/11

  10. The common patterns of nature, Journal of Evolutionary Biology Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: We typically observe large-scale outcomes that arise from the interactions of many hidden, small-scale processes. Examples include age of disease onset, rates of amino acid substitutions and composition of ecological communities. The macroscopic patterns in each problem often vary around a characteristic shape that can be generated by neutral processes. A neutral generative model assumes that each microscopic process follows unbiased or random stochastic fluctuations: random connections of network nodes; amino acid substitutions with no effect on fitness; species that arise or disappear from communities randomly. These neutral generative models often match common patterns of nature. In this paper, I present the theoretical background by which we can understand why these neutral generative models are so successful.(...) This framework shows that each neutral generative model is a special case that helps to discover a particular set of informational constraints; those informational constraints define a much wider domain of non-neutral generative processes that attract to the same neutral pattern.
    • Source: The common patterns of nature
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01775.x ], S. A. Frank, DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01775.x, Journal of Evolutionary Biology Volume 22 Issue 8, Pages 1563 - 1585, 2009/06/18

  11. Complex networks: new trends for the analysis of brain connectivity, arXiv Bookmark and Share

    Abstract: Today, the human brain can be studied as a whole. Electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, or functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques provide functional connectivity patterns between different brain areas, and during different pathological and cognitive neuro-dynamical states. In this Tutorial we review novel complex networks approaches to unveil how brain networks can efficiently manage local processing and global integration for the transfer of information, while being at the same time capable of adapting to satisfy changing neural demands.
    • Source: Complex networks: new trends for the analysis of brain connectivity
      [ http://arXiv.org/abs/1002.0697 ], Mario Chavez, Miguel Valencia, Vito Latora and Jacques Martinerie, arXiv:1002.0697, 2010/02/3

  12. A Methodology for Complex Social Simulations, JASSS Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: This paper proposes a methodology for complex social simulations -particularly inter- and multi-disciplinary socio-natural systems with multi-level architecture- based on a succession of models akin to but distinct from the late Imre Lakatos' notion of a 'research programme'. The proposed methodology is illustrated through examples...
    • Source: A Methodology for Complex Social Simulations
      [ http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/13/1/7.html ], Cioffi-Revilla C, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 13 (1) 7, January 2010
    • Contributed by Segismundo

    1. Bootstrapping Knowledge About Social Phenomena Using Simulation Models, JASSS Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: There are considerable difficulties in the way of the development of useful and reliable simulation models of social phenomena, including that any simulation necessarily includes many assumptions that are not directly supported by evidence. Despite these difficulties, many still hope to develop quite general models of social phenomena. This paper argues that such hopes are ill-founded,... However this paper argues that there is a way forward, that simulation modelling can be used to "boot-strap" useful knowledge about social phenomena.
      • Source: Bootstrapping Knowledge About Social Phenomena Using Simulation Models
        [ http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/13/1/8.html ], Edmonds B, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 13 (1) 8, January 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

    2. Agent-Based Models and Simulations in Economics and Social Sciences: From Conceptual Exploration to Distinct Ways of Experimenting, JASSS Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: Now that complex Agent-Based Models and computer simulations spread over economics and social sciences - as in most sciences of complex systems -, epistemological puzzles (re)emerge. We introduce new epistemological concepts so as to show to what extent authors are right when they focus on some empirical, instrumental or conceptual significance of their model or simulation.
      • Source: Agent-Based Models and Simulations in Economics and Social Sciences: From Conceptual Exploration to Distinct Ways of Experimenting
        [ http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/13/1/5.html ], Phan D, Varenne F, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 13 (1) 5, January 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

    3. What Do Agent-Based and Equation-Based Modelling Tell Us About Social Conventions: The Clash Between ABM and EBM in a Congestion Game Framework, JASSS Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: In this work simulation-based and analytical results on the emergence steady states in traffic-like interactions are presented and discussed. Our main issue is that Agent-Based Modelling (ABM) and the Equation-Based Modelling (EBM) are not alternative, but in some circumstances complementary, and suggest some features distinguishing these two ways of modeling ...
      • Source: What Do Agent-Based and Equation-Based Modelling Tell Us About Social Conventions: The Clash Between ABM and EBM in a Congestion Game Framework
        [ http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/13/1/6.html ], Federico Cecconi, Campenni M, Andrighetto G, Conte R, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 13 (1) 6, January 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

  13. The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations, PLoS ONE Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of wild animal populations is of crucial importance to wildlife managers and conservation biologists, but obtaining experimental evidence using real landscapes is usually impossible. To circumvent this problem we used individual-based models (IBMs) of interacting animals in experimental modifications of a real Danish landscape. [...] Here we show how realistic and replicable individual-based models can bridge the gap between non-spatial population theory and non-dynamic landscape ecology. A major strength of the approach is its ability to identify population vulnerabilities not detected by standard population viability analyses.
    • Source: The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008932 ], Nabe-Nielsen J, Sibly RM, Forchhammer MC, Forbes VE, Topping CJ, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008932, PLoS ONE 5(1): e8932., January 28, 2010
    • Contributed by Segismundo

  14. Cooperation and anisogamy, Journal of Theoretical Biology Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: In the lights of the concept of cooperation wholes, I discuss why the differentiation of sperm and ova can occur with a mathematical model [...] In the final discussion, I further put the evolution of anisogamy into a broader background of levels of selection and of the evolution of cooperation, the most important existential mode of matters that makes life as life.
    • Source: Cooperation and anisogamy
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2010.01.019 ], Yang JN, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2010.01.019, Journal of Theoretical Biology, in Press, January 2010
    • Contributed by Segismundo

    1. Altruism in Forest Chimpanzees: The Case of Adoption, PLoS ONE Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: In recent years, extended altruism towards unrelated group members has been proposed to be a unique characteristic of human societies. [...] These observations reveal that, under the appropriate socio-ecologic conditions, chimpanzees do care for the welfare of other unrelated group members and that altruism is more extensive in wild populations than was suggested by captive studies.
      • Source: Altruism in Forest Chimpanzees: The Case of Adoption
        [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008901 ], Boesch C, Bolé C, Eckhardt N, Boesch H, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008901, PLoS ONE 5(1): e8901, January 27, 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

    2. Feedback, punishment and cooperation in public good experiments, Games and Economic Behavior Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: A number of studies have shown that peer punishment can sustain cooperation in public good games. This paper shows that the format used to give subjects feedback is critical for the efficacy of punishment. [...] The data suggest that this happens because the feedback format acts as a coordination device which influences the contribution standards that groups establish.
      • Source: Feedback, punishment and cooperation in public good experiments
        [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geb.2009.09.004 ], Nikiforakis N, DOI: 10.1016/j.geb.2009.09.004, Games and Economic Behavior 68 (2): 689-702, March 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

    3. Evolution of cooperation in rotating indivisible goods game, Journal of Theoretical Biology Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: Collective behavior is theoretically and experimentally studied through a public goods game in which players contribute resources or efforts to produce goods (or pool), which are then divided equally among all players regardless of the amount of their contribution. However, if goods are indivisible, only one player can receive the goods. In this case, the problem is how to distribute indivisible goods, and here therefore we propose a new game, namely the “rotating indivisible goods game.” In this game, the goods are not divided but distributed by regular rotation. We elucidate mechanisms that sustain cooperation in rotating indivisible goods games by means of evolutionary simulations.
      • Source: Evolution of cooperation in rotating indivisible goods game
        [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2009.12.030 ], Koike S, Nakamaru M, Tsujimoto M, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2009.12.030, Journal of Theoretical Biology, in Press, January 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

  15. The virtue of vagueness, Nature Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt:
    “In research the front line is almost always in a fog,” Crick wrote in his autobiography. Even today there is no consensus definition of the gene. In Not Exactly, a wide-ranging study of vagueness, computer scientist Kees van Deemter argues that precise definitions may not be meaningful or logical. Through his research background in artificial intelligence " he worked on the TENDUM question-answering machine developed at Philips Electronics in the 1980s " he knows how difficult it is to program computers to speak and write like humans. In the book, he brings a mix of logical, linguistic and philosophical perspectives to the topic of vagueness.
    • Source: The virtue of vagueness
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/463736a ], Andrew Robinson, DOI: 10.1038/463736a, Nature 463, 736, 2010/02/10

  16. Local stability under evolutionary game dynamics, Theoretical Economics Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: A basic task of evolutionary game theory is to find conditions under which equilibrium play is dynamically stable. We prove that any regular evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is asymptotically stable under any impartial pairwise comparison dynamic, including [...]
    • Source: Local stability under evolutionary game dynamics
      [ http://econtheory.org/ojs/index.php/te/article/viewFile/20100027/3306 ], Sandholm WH, Theoretical Economics 5: 27-50, January 2010
    • Contributed by Segismundo

    1. Orders of limits for stationary distributions, stochastic dominance, and stochastic stability, Theoretical Economics Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: A population of agents recurrently plays a two-strategy population game. When an agent receives a revision opportunity, he chooses a new strategy using a noisy best response rule that satisfies mild regularity conditions [...] We study the long run behavior of the resulting Markov process when the noise level is small and the population size N is large [...] and we establish that these asymptotics are the same for either order of limits and for all simultaneous limits. [...] we prove that coordination on a given strategy is stochastically stable under every noisy best response rule if and only if that strategy is stochastically dominant.
      • Source: Orders of limits for stationary distributions, stochastic dominance, and stochastic stability
        [ http://econtheory.org/ojs/index.php/te/article/viewFile/20100001/3304 ], Sandholm WH, Theoretical Economics 5: 1-26, January 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

    2. Experimental comparison of multi-stage and one-stage contests, Games and Economic Behavior Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: [...] Our experiment provides evidence that winning is a component in a subject's utility. A simple behavioral model that accounts for a non-monetary utility of winning can explain ...
      • Source: Experimental comparison of multi-stage and one-stage contests
        [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geb.2009.08.001 ], Sheremeta RM, DOI: 10.1016/j.geb.2009.08.001, Games and Economic Behavior 68 (2): 731-747, March 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

    3. Same-Sex Gaze Attraction Influences Mate-Choice Copying in Humans, PLoS ONE Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: Mate-choice copying occurs when animals rely on the mating choices of others to inform their own mating decisions. [...]These results highlight the prevalence of non-independent mate choice in humans and implicate social attention and reward circuitry in these decisions.
      • Source: Same-Sex Gaze Attraction Influences Mate-Choice Copying in Humans
        [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009115 ], Yorzinski JL, Platt ML, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009115, PLoS ONE 5(2): e9115, February 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

  17. Can Power-Law Scaling and Neuronal Avalanches Arise from Stochastic Dynamics?, PLoS ONE Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: The presence of self-organized criticality in biology is often evidenced by a power-law scaling of event size distributions, which can be measured by linear regression on logarithmic axes. We show here that such a procedure does not necessarily mean that the system exhibits self-organized criticality. [...] We conclude that logarithmic representations can lead to spurious power-law scaling induced by the stochastic nature of the phenomenon. This apparent power-law scaling does not constitute a proof of self-organized criticality, which should be demonstrated by more stringent statistical tests.
    • Source: Can Power-Law Scaling and Neuronal Avalanches Arise from Stochastic Dynamics?
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008982 ], Touboul J, Destexhe A, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008982, PLoS ONE 5(2): e8982, February 2010
    • Contributed by Segismundo

    1. Evidence of a general 2/3-power law of scaling leaf nitrogen to phosphorus among major plant groups and biomes, Proc. R. Soc. B Bookmark and Share

      Excerpt: Scaling relations among plant traits are both cause and consequence of processes at organ-to-ecosystem scales. The relationship between leaf nitrogen and phosphorus is of particular interest, [...] Power law exponents derived from log-log scaling relations were near 2/3 for all observations pooled, [...] these results also support the idea that surprisingly simple rules regulate leaf form and function in terrestrial ecosystems.
      • Source: Evidence of a general 2/3-power law of scaling leaf nitrogen to phosphorus among major plant groups and biomes
        [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.1818 ], Reich PB, Oleksyn J, Wright IJ, Niklas KJ, Hedin L, Elser JJ, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1818, Proc. R. Soc. B 277, 1683:877-883, March 2010
      • Contributed by Segismundo

  18. Algorithmically independent sequences, Information and Computation Bookmark and Share

    Abstract: Two objects are independent if they do not affect each other. Independence is well-understood in classical information theory, but less in algorithmic information theory. Working in the framework of algorithmic information theory, the paper proposes two types of independence for arbitrary infinite binary sequences and studies their properties. Our two proposed notions of independence have some of the intuitive properties that one naturally expects. For example, for every sequence x, the set of sequences that are independent with x has measure one. For both notions of independence we investigate to what extent pairs of independent sequences, can be effectively constructed via Turing reductions (from one or more input sequences). In this respect, we prove several impossibility results. For example, it is shown that there is no effective way of producing from an arbitrary sequence with positive constructive Hausdorff dimension two sequences that are independent (even in the weaker type of independence) and have super-logarithmic complexity. Finally, a few conjectures and open questions are discussed.
    • Source: Algorithmically independent sequences
      [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ic.2009.05.004 ], Cristian S. Calude, Marius Zimand, DOI: 10.1016/j.ic.2009.05.004, Information and Computation Volume 208, Issue 3, Pages 292-308, 2010/03

  19. Book Announcements Bookmark and Share


    1. Language as a Complex Adaptive System, Wiley-Blackwell Bookmark and Share

      Summary:
      In this book, leading researchers in linguistics, psychology, and complex systems discussed the path-breaking significance of this perspective for their work, demonstrating that an understanding of language learning can only come about from such interdisciplinary, integrated inquiry. The papers in this volume summarize this new approach and illustrate it as it applies to language usage, structure, and change, sociolinguistics, cognitive linguistics, anthropology, language evolution, first language acquisition, second language acquisition, psycholinguistics and language processing, language education, individual differences, and language testing.
      • Source: Language as a Complex Adaptive System
        [ http://www.amazon.com/dp/144433400X?tag=compldiges-20&camp=0&creative=0&linkCode=as1&creativeASIN=144433400X&adid=1C8ZQ5KKWC8PKEF40TNZ& ], Nick C. Ellis, Diane Larsen-Freeman, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010/01/01
      • Contributed by Anton Joha - antonjohaagmail.com

    2. Dynamics of Gambling: Origins of Randomness in Mechanical Systems, Springer Bookmark and Share

      Summary:
      This monograph presents a concise discussion of the dynamics of mechanical randomizers (coin tossing, die throwing and roulette). The authors derive the equations of motion, also describing collisions and body contacts. It is shown and emphasized that, from the dynamical point of view, outcomes are predictable, i.e. if an experienced player can reproduce initial conditions with a small finite uncertainty, there is a good chance that the desired final state will be obtained. Finally, readers learn why mechanical randomizers can approximate random processes and benefit from a discussion of the nature of randomness in mechanical systems. (...)
      • Source: Dynamics of Gambling: Origins of Randomness in Mechanical Systems
        [ http://www.amazon.com/dp/3642039596?tag=compldiges-20&camp=0&creative=0&linkCode=as1&creativeASIN=3642039596&adid=1RENM863ESN94ZW6XGWX& ], Jaroslaw Strzalko et al., Springer, 2010/01/01
      • Contributed by Anton Joha - antonjohaagmail.com

    3. Entropy, Search, Complexity, Springer Berlin Heidelberg Bookmark and Share

      Summary:
      The present volume is a collection of survey papers in the fields of entropy, search and complexity. They summarize the latest developments in their respective areas. More than half of the papers belong to search theory which lies on the borderline of mathematics and computer science, information theory and combinatorics, respectively. Search theory has variegated applications, among others in bioinformatics. Some of these papers also have links to linear statistics and communicational complexity. Further works survey the fundamentals of information theory and quantum source coding.
      • Source: Entropy, Search, Complexity
        [ http://www.amazon.com/dp/3642068995?tag=compldiges-20&camp=0&creative=0&linkCode=as1&creativeASIN=3642068995&adid=1ZXM1W3267D1SC1YBH5R& ], Imre Csiszar (Editor) et al., Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010/01/01
      • Contributed by Anton Joha - antonjohaagmail.com

    4. Information and Complexity in Statistical Modeling, Springer New York Bookmark and Share

      Summary:
      No statistical model is "true" or "false," "right" or "wrong"; the models just have varying performance, which can be assessed. The main theme in this book is to teach modeling based on the principle that the objective is to extract the information from data that can be learned with suggested classes of probability models. The intuitive and fundamental concepts of complexity, learnable information, and noise are formalized, which provides a firm information theoretic foundation for statistical modeling. (...)
      • Source: Information and Complexity in Statistical Modeling
        [ http://www.amazon.com/dp/1441922679?tag=compldiges-20&camp=0&creative=0&linkCode=as1&creativeASIN=1441922679&adid=1QJG8GXPMCG2A0PDYG61& ], Jorma Rissanen, Springer New York, 2010/01/01
      • Contributed by Anton Joha - antonjohaagmail.com

    5. Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy, Routledge Bookmark and Share

      Description:
      Analyzing emerging practices of collaboration in planning and public policy to overcome the challenges of complexity, fragmentation and uncertainty, the authors present a new theory of collaborative rationality, to help make sense of the new practices. They inquire in detail into how collaborative rationality works, the theories that inform it, and the potential and pitfalls for democracy in the 21st century. Representing the authors' collective experience based upon over 30 years of research and practice, this is insightful reading for students, educators, scholars, and reflective practitioners in the fields of urban planning, public policy, political science, and public administration. Selected contents include: 1. Thinking differently for an age of complexity 2. How can theory improve practice 3. Stories from the field 4. The praxis of collaboration 5. Dialogue as a community of inquiry 6. Knowledge into action 7. Using local knowledge for justice and resilience 8. Beyond collaboration: democratic governance for a resilient society.
      • Source: Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy
        [ http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0415779324?ie=UTF8&tag=complexes-20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0415779324 ], Judith E. Innes, David E. Booher, Routledge, 2010/01/12

    6. Cellular Automata Books Repository Bookmark and Share

      Description: I have collected a small repository about cellular automata books. You can see detailed data and online versions via website for some of them.
      • Source: Cellular Automata Books Repository
        [ http://uncomp.uwe.ac.uk/genaro/Cellular_Automata_Repository/Books.html ], Genaro Juárez Martínez, 2010/02

  20. Links & Snippets Bookmark and Share


    1. Other Publications Bookmark and Share

      1. Quantum Darwinism as a Darwinian process, John Campbell, 2010/01/5, arXiv:1001.0745
      2. Human host factors required for influenza virus replication, Renate König, et al., 2010/02/11, Nature 463, 813-817, DOI: 10.1038/nature08699
      3. Genome-wide RNAi screen identifies human host factors crucial for influenza virus replication, Alexander Karlas, et al., 2010/02/11, Nature 463, 818-822, DOI: 10.1038/nature08760
      4. Structure Learning in a Sensorimotor Association Task, Braun DA, Waldert S, Aertsen A, Wolpert DM, Mehring C, January 29, 2010, PLoS ONE 5(1): e8973, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008973
      5. Meaningful learning and transfer of learning in games played repeatedly without feedback, Rick S, Weber RA, March 2010, Games and Economic Behavior 68 (2): 716-730, DOI: 10.1016/j.geb.2009.10.004

    2. Conference Announcements Bookmark and Share

      1. 4th International Nonlinear Science Conference, University of Palermo, Sicily, 2010/03/15-17
      2. 20th European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research, EMCSR 2010, University of Vienna, Austria, 10/04/6-9
      3. EvoStar 2010 , Istanbul, Turkey, 10/04/7-10
      4. International Conference on Computer Supported Education, Valencia, Spain, 10/04/7-10
      5. EmergeNET4: Engineering Emergence, York, UK, 2010/04/19-20
      6. Emergence and Design of Robustness, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 2010/04/19-23
      7. AAMAS-2010, the 9th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Toronto Canada, 2010/05/10-14
      8. The IV International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization - NICSO 2010, Granada, Spain, 10/05/12-14
      9. International Conference on Computational Science 2010 (ICCS 2010), University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2010/05/31-06/2
      10. ICEIS 2010 (12th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems), Funchal-Madeira, Portugal, 10/06/6-10
      11. International Workshop on Living Organisms in Flows: From Small-Scale Turbulence to Geophysical Flows, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 2010/06/7-11
      12. ICAC 2010, the 7th IEEE International Conference on Autonomic Computing, Washington, DC, USA, 2010/06/7-11
      13. NKS Summer School, University of Vermont, USA, 2010/06/21-07/09
      14. International Conference on Information Society (i-Society 2010) , London, UK, 2010/06/28-30
      15. Tomorrow's Giants, London, UK, 2010/07/01
      16. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2010), Portland, Oregon, USA, 2010/07/7-11
      17. The 2010 Advanced Geographical Analysis and Modeling Workshop, Neve Ilan, Israel, 2010/07/8-10
      18. 2010 World Congress on Computational Intelligence (IJCNN 2010, FUZZ-IEEE 2010, and IEEE CEC 2010), Barcelona, Spain, 10/07/18-23
      19. The 2010 International Conference on Informatics Cypernetics, and Computer Applications (ICICCA2010), Bangalore, India, 2010/07/19-20
      20. 1st International Workshop on Complexity and Real World Applications: Using the Tools and Concepts from the Complexity Sciences to Support Real World Decision-making Activities, Southampton, England, UK, 2010/07/21-23
      21. Dynamics Days South America, São José dos Campos, Brazil, 2010/07/26-30
      22. Hands-On Research in Complex Systems School, Buea, Cameroon, 2010/08/2-13
      23. European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI), Copenhagen, Denmark, 10/08/09-20
      24. Amorphous Computing and Complex Biological Networks, University of Sheffield, UK, 2010/08/17-20
      25. Artificial Life XII (ALife XII), Odense, Denmark, 10/08/19--23. Deadline extended to March 31st.
      26. The Second IEEE International Conference on Social Computing (SocialCom-2010): Enabling Computing, Services and Intelligence for Social Life, Minneapolis, USA, 2010/08/20-22
      27. From animals to animats: the Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (SAB'10), , Paris, France, 2010/08/24-28
      28. 2010 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI-10), Toronto, Canada, 2010/08/31-09/03
      29. ANTS 2010, Seventh International Conference on Swarm Intelligence, Brussels, Belgium, 10/09/8-10
      30. Artificial Economics, Treviso, Italy, 2010/09/9-10
      31. PPSN 2010: 11th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving From Nature, Krakow, Poland, 2010/09/11-15
      32. European Conference on Complex Systems, Lisbon, Portugal, 2010/09/13-17
      33. 12th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS 2010), New York City, USA, 2010/09/20-22
      34. CASoN 2010 International Conference on Computational Aspects of Social Networks, Taiyuan, China, 2010/09/26"28
      35. SASO 2010 Fourth IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems, Budapest, Hungary, 2010/09/27-10/01
      36. The 5th Int'l Conference on Bio-Inspired Models of Network, Information and Computing Systems, Boston, MA, USA, 2010/12/1-3


    3. Webcast Announcements Bookmark and Share

      1. Smarter Cities NYC. Posted on 2009/10/05

      2. ASSYST Digital Library. Since 09/09

      3. Complex Systems Teleconferences. Since 09/09

      4. Symmetry Festival 2009, Budapest, Hungary, 09/08/1-4.

      5. International Workshop on Coping with Crises in Complex Socio-Economic Systems, Zurich, Switzerland, 09/06/8-12

      6. Memorial Service for Dr Gottfried Mayer, Founding Editor Complexity Digest, Taipei, Taiwan (1954-2009). Video [RM], 09/02/13

      7. Making Connections: In Memory and Celebration of the Life of Dr. Gottfried Mayer (1954-2009). Video [RM] [MPG], 09/02/13

      8. Eulogy for Gottfried Mayer by Dean LeBaron [WMV, 25 Mb], [RM, 10 Mb], 09/02/10

      9. Can Ants Solve Traffic Jams?, Danielle Parsons, Slatev.com, 08/07/22

      10. Reseau Nationale des Systemes Complexes , (in French), 2007
      11. World Economic Forum , Davos, Switzerland, 08/01/22-27
      12. TED Talks, TED Conferences LLC , since 2006
      13. Talking Robots: The PodCast on Robotics and AI, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland, 06/11/03
      14. Potentials of Complexity Science for Business, Governments, and the Media 2006, Budapest, Hungary, 06/08/03-05
      15. 6th Intl Conf on Complex Systems (ICCS), Boston, MA, 06/06/25-30
      16. Artificial Life X, 10th Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, Bloomington, IN, USA. 2006/06/03-07
      17. 6th Understanding Complex Systems Symposium, Urbana-Champaign, Il, 06/05/15-18
      18. Ralph Abraham on Complexity Digest, , Calcutta, India, 05/12/27
      19. An Afternoon with Michael Crichton, Washington, 05/11/06
      20. Illuminating the Shadow of the Future, Ann Arbor, Mi 05/09/23-25
      21. Open Network of Centres of Excellence in Complex Systems - Brainstorming Meeting, Paris, France 05/09/19-23
      22. Complexity, Science & Society Conference 2005, U. Liverpool, UK 2005/09/11-14
      23. ECAL 2005 - VIIIth European Conference on Artificial Life, Canterbury, Kent, UK 2005/09/5-9
      24. T. Irene Sanders, Executive Director and Founder, The Washington Center for Complexity & Public Policy, 05/08/27, QuickTime video (10:38 min), Podcast
      25. North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity 2005 Conference, Virtual Conference Network, St. Pete's Beach, Florida, 05/06/09-11
      26. Understanding Complex Systems - Computational Complexity and Bioinformatics, Virtual Conference Network, Urbana-Champaign, Il, UIUC, 05/05/16-19
      27. Nonlinearity, Fluctuations, and Complexity, with a celebration of the 65th birthday of Gregoire Nicolis. , Complexity Session, Universite' Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, 05/03/16
      28. 1st European Conference on Complex Systems, Torino, Italy, 04/12/5-7
      29. From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela (1946-2001), Paris, France, 2004/06/18-20
      30. Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium, 04/05/26-28
      31. International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21
      32. Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H., Internet-First University Press, 1994
      33. CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and Live Events
      34. Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998
      35. Edge Videos


    4. Other Announcements Bookmark and Share