Complexity Digest 2008.15

   09-Apr-2008

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  1. The Promise of Cancer Research, Science
  2. Mismanaged Measures, Nature
    1. Drug Markers Questioned, Nature
  3. The Cancer Biomarker Problem, Nature
    1. Mining The Plasma Proteome For Cancer Biomarkers, Nature
  4. Imaging In The Era Of Molecular Oncology, Nature
  5. Tumour Maintenance Is Mediated By eNOS, Nature
  6. Mitochondrial Mutations Make Tumors Spread, Science Now
  7. Stem Cells Made To Mimic Disease, BBC News
    1. Feed That Cold! New Study Shows That Lower Food Intake Has A Negative Effect On Immune System, Innovations-report
  8. You, In A Dish - Cultured Human Cells Could Put Lab Animals Out Of Work For Chemical And Drug Testing, Science News
  9. Stochasticity and Cell Fate, Science
  10. From ‘Understanding The Brain By Creating The Brain’ Towards Manipulative Neuroscience, Phil. Tran. Biol. Sc.
    1. Episodic-Like Memory in Rats: Is It Based on When or How Long Ago?, Science
  11. NYU Dental Professor Discovers Biological Clock, Innovations-report
  12. A Place In The Sun, Innovations-report
  13. 'Darwin Chip' Brings Evolution Into The Classroom, New Scientist
  14. Carbon-Trading Market Has Uncertain Future - Clean Development Mechanism May Be Capped., Nature
  15. Quantum Cocoon - Diamonds Are A Physicist's - And Perhaps Quantum Computing's - Best Friend, Science News
    1. Newly Discovered 'Superinsulators' Promise To Transform Materials Research, Electronics Design, PhysOrg.com
  16. Music Theory: Creating Musical Variation, Science
  17. Hot, Bright, Massive Stars Have Complex Mixing Processes In Their Great Depths, ScienceDaily
  18. Short- And Long-Term Effects Of United Nations Peace Operations, World Bank Econ. Rev.
  19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
    1. Crackdown on Militias May Add to Instability in Iraq, NY Times
    2. Building A Legal Framework For Torture, Aljazeera
  20. Links & Snippets
    1. Other Publications
    2. Webcast Announcements
    3. Conference Announcements
    4. Other Announcements
  1. The Promise of Cancer Research, Science Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: In recent years, I have heard the argument that we already know enough about fundamental biological mechanisms to cure cancer, and that the best way to improve cancer outcomes would be to focus nearly all of our cancer research resources on applying what we know to develop therapies. This would be a mistake. To make my point, I describe two of many examples where a much deeper understanding of fundamental mechanisms seems almost certain to improve cancer treatments.
    • Source: The Promise of Cancer Research
      [ http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/320/5872/19 Bruce Alberts ], Science: 19., 08/04/04

  2. Mismanaged Measures, Nature Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: Surrogate end points can be helpful in clinical trials - but only if they are used with care.

    "What gets measured, gets managed" is an adage that doctors know all too well. (...)

    But every so often, a surrogate deceives, as in the unexpected results from two recent clinical trials. One found that the drug ezetimibe, which lowers cholesterol levels, did not seem to slow the steady march of atherosclerosis in patients with high cholesterol (...). In the other, one part of the trial was halted when the researchers found that using a combination of strict diet and insulin to lower diabetics' blood-sugar levels to those of

    • Source: Mismanaged Measures
      [ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7187/full/452504a.html ], DOI: 10.1038/452504a, Nature 452, 504, 08/04/03

    1. Drug Markers Questioned, Nature Bookmark and Share

      Excerpts: A recent spate of worrying clinical-trial data has researchers questioning drugs approved on the basis of how they affect biomarkers rather than clinical endpoints. (...)

      Cancer drugs approved on the basis of a surrogate marker of tumour size don't always reduce mortality. (...)

      But others argued that the body raised blood pressure as a way of mitigating poor vascular health. The stakes were high: if increased blood pressure was a coping mechanism, then drugs that lowered it could be harmful.

      • Source: Drug Markers Questioned
        [ http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080401/full/452510a.html ], Heidi Ledford, DOI: 10.1038/452510a, Nature 452, 510-511 (2008), 08

  3. The Cancer Biomarker Problem, Nature Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: Genomic technologies offer the promise of a comprehensive understanding of cancer. These technologies are being used to characterize tumours at the molecular level, and several clinical successes have shown that such information can guide the design of drugs targeted to a relevant molecule. One of the main barriers to further progress is identifying the biological indicators, or biomarkers, of cancer that predict who will benefit from a particular targeted therapy.
    • Source: The Cancer Biomarker Problem
      [ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7187/full/nature06913.html ], Charles L. Sawyers, DOI: 10.1038/nature06913, Nature 452, 548-552, 08/04/03

    1. Mining The Plasma Proteome For Cancer Biomarkers, Nature Bookmark and Share

      Excerpts: There is increasing evidence of an immune response to cancer in humans, as demonstrated in part by the identification of autoantibodies specific for a number of intracellular and cell-surface antigens detectable in sera from patients with different cancer types. Clearly, tumours can still develop in the presence of this antibody-mediated immune response. However, the identification of a panel of antigenic biomarkers that are tumour-specific and that elicit immunoreactivity early in tumour development and at a high frequency would provide an effective strategy for cancer screening.
      • Source: Mining The Plasma Proteome For Cancer Biomarkers
        [ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7187/full/nature06916.html ], Samir M. Hanash, Sharon J. Pitteri, Vitor M. Faca, DOI: 10.1038/nature06916, Nature 452, 571-579, 08/04/03

  4. Imaging In The Era Of Molecular Oncology, Nature Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: New technologies for imaging molecules, particularly optical technologies, are increasingly being used to understand the complexity, diversity and in vivo behaviour of cancers. 'Omic' approaches are providing comprehensive 'snapshots' of biological indicators, or biomarkers, of cancer, but imaging can take this information a step further, showing the activity of these markers in vivo and how their location changes over time. Advances in experimental and clinical imaging are likely to improve how cancer is understood at a systems level and, ultimately, should enable doctors not only to locate tumours but also to assess the activity of the biological processes within these tumours and to provide 'on the spot' treatment.
    • Source: Imaging In The Era Of Molecular Oncology
      [ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7187/full/nature06917.html ], Ralph Weissleder, Mikael J. Pittet, DOI: 10.1038/nature06917, Nature 452, 580-589, 08/04/03

  5. Tumour Maintenance Is Mediated By eNOS, Nature Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: Tumour cells become addicted to the expression of initiating oncogenes like Ras, such that loss of oncogene expression in established tumours leads to tumour regression. HRas, NRas or KRas are mutated to remain in the active GTP-bound oncogenic state in many cancers. Although Ras activates several proteins to initiate human tumour growth, only PI3K, through activation of protein kinase B (...), must remain activated by oncogenic Ras to maintain this growth. Here we show that blocking phosphorylation of the AKT substrate, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS or NOS3), inhibits tumour initiation and maintenance. (...) We suggest that activation of the PI3K-AKT-eNOS-(wild-type) Ras pathway by oncogenic Ras in cancer cells is required to initiate and maintain tumour growth.
    • Source: Tumour Maintenance Is Mediated By eNOS
      [ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7187/full/nature06778.html ], Kian-Huat Lim, Brooke B. Ancrile, David F. Kashatus, Christopher M. Counter, DOI: 10.1038/nature06778, Nature 452, 646-649, 08/04/03

  6. Mitochondrial Mutations Make Tumors Spread, Science Now Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: Cancer often strikes its final, fatal blow when a tumor spreads to other organs. A new study published online today in Science sheds light on this poorly understood process, called metastasis. The researchers report that mutations in mitochondrial DNA can spur metastasis and that it can be reversed with drugs, at least in mice. (...)

    (...) the fact that antioxidants suppressed metastasis warrants further study, he says. Kornelia Polyak of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston cautions, however, that clinical trials testing antioxidants to prevent cancer have yielded mixed results and that giving antioxidants to someone on chemotherapy could interfere with the treatment.

    • Source: Mitochondrial Mutations Make Tumors Spread
      [ http://sciencenow.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2008/403/1 ], Jocelyn Kaiser, ScienceNOW, 08/04/03

  7. Stem Cells Made To Mimic Disease, BBC News Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts:
    The use of embyronic stem cells is highly controversial
    Scientists have taken skin cells from patients with eight different diseases and turned them into stem cells.

    The advance means scientists are moving closer to using stem cells from the patient themselves to treat disease. (...)

    Rather than managing the symptoms of the disease, they would be used to regenerate the affected parts of the body. (...)

    They can also be used to test drugs - potentially paving the way for more effective treatments.

    • Source: Stem Cells Made To Mimic Disease
      [ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7334365.stm ], BBC News, 08/04/07

    1. Feed That Cold! New Study Shows That Lower Food Intake Has A Negative Effect On Immune System, Innovations-report Bookmark and Share

      Excerpts: Researchers studying deer mice have discovered evidence to support what mothers everywhere have long suspected: the immune system needs food to function properly. In an article (...) find that reduced food intake leads to a decline in immune function in their subjects. (...) Why immune activity is variable in many wild animals is a question that has long puzzled researchers. "Animals live different lifestyles, so they may use different types of defenses against infection depending on the situation. Perhaps this is why immune defenses vary seasonally in most species; some may be too expensive to use all the time," Martin said, (...).
      • Source: Feed That Cold! New Study Shows That Lower Food Intake Has A Negative Effect On Immune System
        [ http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/studies/report-106781.html ], Innovations-report, 2008/04/03
      • Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinayahoo.co.in

  8. You, In A Dish - Cultured Human Cells Could Put Lab Animals Out Of Work For Chemical And Drug Testing, Science News Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts:
    WEB OF LIFE. Networks showing the interactions among proteins help scientists understand how a drug affecting one protein will affect overall cell functioning. This protein network for brewer's yeast shows which proteins are critical for survival (red), which are important for growth but not critical to survival (orange), which can be removed without slowing growth or killing the cells (green), and which are of unknown importance (yellow). Hawoong Jeong/Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
    Two innovations in recent years have made this approach possible. The first is the explosion of knowledge that resulted from the sequencing of the human genome. Trying to make sense of this torrent of data has spawned the field of systems biology, an attempt to put all the genetic pieces together and understand how the cell operates as a whole. Systems biologists produce complex maps of how genes and proteins interact, and these maps help scientists to analyze results from a drug screening.
    • Source: You, In A Dish - Cultured Human Cells Could Put Lab Animals Out Of Work For Chemical And Drug Testing
      [ http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20080405/bob10.asp ], Patrick Barry, Science News, 08/04/05
    • AUDIO - Audible Format
      [ http://www.audible.com/sciencenews/ ]

  9. Stochasticity and Cell Fate, Science Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: Fundamental to living cells is the capacity to differentiate into subtypes with specialized attributes. Understanding the way cells acquire their fates is a major challenge in developmental biology. How cells adopt a particular fate is usually thought of as being deterministic, and in the large majority of cases it is. That is, cells acquire their fate by virtue of their lineage or their proximity to an inductive signal from another cell. In some cases, however, and in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans, cells choose one or another pathway of differentiation stochastically, without apparent regard to environment or history.
    • Source: Stochasticity and Cell Fate
      [ http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/320/5872/65 ], Richard Losick, Claude Desplan, Science : 65-68., 08/04/04

  10. From ‘Understanding The Brain By Creating The Brain' Towards Manipulative Neuroscience, Phil. Tran. Biol. Sc. Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: Ten years have passed since the Japanese ‘Century of the Brain' was promoted, and its most notable objective, the unique ‘creating the brain' approach, has led us to apply a humanoid robot as a neuroscience tool. Here, we aim to understand the brain to the extent that we can make humanoid robots solve tasks typically solved by the human brain by essentially the same principles. I postulate that this ‘Understanding the Brain by Creating the Brain' approach is the only way to fully understand neural mechanisms in a rigorous sense. (...)
    • Source: From ‘Understanding The Brain By Creating The Brain’ Towards Manipulative Neuroscience
      [ http://journals.royalsociety.org/content/1k785017n2013483/?p=44597d0446db4380a265946ef89ea139&pi=0 ], M. Kawato, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2008.2272, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 2008/03/28
    • Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinayahoo.co.in

    1. Episodic-Like Memory in Rats: Is It Based on When or How Long Ago?, Science Bookmark and Share

      Excerpts: Recent experiments with rats suggest that they show episodic-like or what-where-when memory for a preferred food found on a radial maze. Although memory for when a salient event occurred suggests that rats can mentally travel in time to a moment in the past, an alternative possibility is that they remember how long ago the food was found. Three groups of rats were tested for memory of previously encountered food.
      • Source: Episodic-Like Memory in Rats: Is It Based on When or How Long Ago?
        [ http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/320/5872/113 ], William A. Roberts, Miranda C. Feeney, Krista MacPherson, Mark Petter, Neil McMillan, Evanya Musolino, Science: 113-115., 08/04/04

  11. NYU Dental Professor Discovers Biological Clock, Innovations-report Bookmark and Share

    Excerpt: Why do rats live faster and die younger than humans? A newly discovered biological clock provides tantalizing clues. This clock, or biological rhythm, controls many metabolic functions and is based on the circadian rhythm, which is a roughly 24-hour cycle that is important in determining sleeping and feeding patterns, cell regeneration, and other biological processes in mammals. The newly discovered rhythm, like the circadian rhythm, originates in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that functions as the main control center for the autonomic nervous system. But unlike the circadian rhythm, this clock varies from one organism to another, (...).
    • Source: NYU Dental Professor Discovers Biological Clock
      [ http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life_sciences/report-107149.html ], Innovations-report, 2008/04/08
    • Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinayahoo.co.in

  12. A Place In The Sun, Innovations-report Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: Those spindly plants that desperately try to reach for a break in the canopy formed by larger plants all suffer from the same affliction: Shade avoidance syndrome or SAS. Now, the molecular details of SAS have been brought to light by researchers (...). To step out of their neighbors' shade, plants switch on a natural chemical factory for the synthesis of the plant growth hormone auxin that lets a plant grow and ultimately stretch toward the sun, (...). Understanding this response at a molecular level will allow scientists to naturally manipulate this response to increase yield in crops ranging from rice to wheat. (...)
    • Source: A Place In The Sun
      [ http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life_sciences/report-107051.html ], Innovations-report, 2008/04/07
    • Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinayahoo.co.in

  13. 'Darwin Chip' Brings Evolution Into The Classroom, New Scientist Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: A new "Darwin chip" could make evolution as easy as pressing play.

    Researchers have created an automated device that evolves a biological molecule on a chip filled with hundreds of miniature chambers.

    The molecule, which stitches together strands of RNA, became 90 times more efficient after just 70 hours of evolution.

    "It's survival of the fittest," (...).

    The experiment could be used in the future to evolve molecules - or even cells - to sense environmental pollutants, (...).

    • Source: 'Darwin Chip' Brings Evolution Into The Classroom
      [ http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn13611-darwin-chip-brings-evolution-into-the-classroom.html ], Ewen Callaway, NewScientist, 08/04/08

  14. Carbon-Trading Market Has Uncertain Future - Clean Development Mechanism May Be Capped., Nature Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: The idea that developing nations should be able to increase emissions for a time to grow their economies and lift their citizens out of poverty is grounded in the current climate treaty. But there is increasing recognition that industrialized countries - responsible for most of the current greenhouse-gas emissions - cannot alone address climate issues, given the rapid rise of emissions in emerging economies.
    • Source: http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080402/full/452508b.html
      [ Jeff Tollefson ], DOI: 10.1038/452508b, Nature 452, 508-509, 08

  15. Quantum Cocoon - Diamonds Are A Physicist's - And Perhaps Quantum Computing's - Best Friend, Science News Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts:
    RING CYCLE. At just 300 nanometers thick, this is the world's smallest diamond ring. Steven Prawer and his colleagues at the University of Melbourne in Australia are creating structures such as this one to guide light pulses inside future diamond-based computers. B. Fairchild and P. Olivero/Univ. of Melbourne
    Complete control over the states of a qubit is one step toward making diamond viable for quantum computing, physicists say. That path will be long, but encouraging steps have already been made.

    Among the most significant was the realization that diamond can keep quantum states undisturbed at room temperature. For example, the spin states of NV centers can last up to a millisecond, Awschalom says, which in the quantum world is an eternity. In one millisecond, a quantum computer would be able to perform thousands of calculations, each involving multiple states at once.

    • Source: Quantum Cocoon - Diamonds Are A Physicist's - And Perhaps Quantum Computing's - Best Friend
      [ http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20080405/bob9.asp ], Davide Castelvecchi, Science News, 08/04/05
    • AUDIO - Audible Format
      [ http://www.audible.com/sciencenews/ ]

    1. Newly Discovered 'Superinsulators' Promise To Transform Materials Research, Electronics Design, PhysOrg.com Bookmark and Share

      Excerpts: If, for example, a battery is left exposed to the air, the charge will eventually drain from it in a matter of days or weeks because the air is not a perfect insulator, according to Vinokur. "If you pass a current through a superconductor, then it will carry the current forever; conversely, if you have a superinsulator, then it will hold a charge forever," he said. (...)

      "Titanium nitride films, as well as films prepared from some other materials, can be either superconductors or insulators depending on the thickness of the film," Vinokur said. "If you take the film which is just on the insulating side of the transition and decrease the temperature or magnetic field, then the film all of a sudden becomes a superinsulator."

      • Source: Newly Discovered 'Superinsulators' Promise To Transform Materials Research, Electronics Design
        [ http://www.physorg.com/news126797387.html ], PhysOrg.com, 08/04/07

  16. Music Theory: Creating Musical Variation, Science Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: Inspiration for composition may come from natural sounds, chance, and methods based on chaos theory. (...)

    However, if a composer wants to vary an entire work from one hearing to the next, and even from performance to performance, without Cage's randomness, a different kind of variation technique has been helpful--one that uses a chaotic mapping to make musical variations of the entire work (13). Such a technique harnesses a natural mechanism for variability found in the science of chaos--that is, the sensitivity of chaotic trajectories to initial conditions.

    • Source: Music Theory: Creating Musical Variation
      [ http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/320/5872/62 ], Diana S. Dabby, Science : 62-63., 08/04/04

  17. Hot, Bright, Massive Stars Have Complex Mixing Processes In Their Great Depths, ScienceDaily Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: A surprising analysis of material churned up from the depths of massive stars shows that the mixing processes in these hot, bright stars are much more complicated than thought. (...) Massive stars rotate at speeds of up to a million kilometres per hour and this rotation drives huge circulatory currents. Models predict that gas from the star's core, containing nitrogen and other elements produced in fusion reactions, should be thrust up to the surface. (...) They found that nearly half the stars did not have the levels of nitrogen predicted, indicating rotation is not the only factor driving mixing. (...)
    • Source: Hot, Bright, Massive Stars Have Complex Mixing Processes In Their Great Depths
      [ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080402160844.htm ], ScienceDaily & Royal Astronomical Society, 2008/04/07
    • Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinayahoo.co.in

  18. Short- And Long-Term Effects Of United Nations Peace Operations, World Bank Econ. Rev. Bookmark and Share

    Excerpts: (...) showed that United Nations (UN) peace operations have made positive contributions to peacebuilding in the short term, helping parties implement peace agreements. But are the effects of UN peace operations lasting? Because the UN cannot fight wars, such operations should not be used to enforce a peace. Peacekeeping operations contribute more to the quality of the peace-that is, to securing more than the mere absence of war-than to its duration, because the effects of such operations dissipate over time. For peace to be self-sustaining, countries must develop institutions and policies that generate economic growth. (...)
    • Source: Short- And Long-Term Effects Of United Nations Peace Operations
      [ http://wber.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/22/1/9 ], N. Sambanis - nicholas.sambanisayale.edu, DOI: 10.1093/wber/lhm022, The World Bank Economic Review, 22:1, 2008, online 2008/01/31
    • Contributed by Pritha Das - prithadas01ayahoo.com

  19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks Bookmark and Share


    1. Crackdown on Militias May Add to Instability in Iraq, NY Times Bookmark and Share

      Excerpts: And both the Kurds and some of Mr. Maliki's Shiite political rivals, who also resent Mr. Sadr's rising power, have been driven closer to Mr. Maliki. This may give him more traction to pass laws and broker deals.

      But the badly coordinated push into Basra has unleashed a new barrage of attacks on American and Iraqi forces and has led to open fighting between Shiite militias.

      • Source: Crackdown on Militias May Add to Instability in Iraq
        [ http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/08/world/middleeast/08iraq.html ], James Glanz, Stephen Farrell, NYTimes, 08/04/08

    2. Building A Legal Framework For Torture, Aljazeera Bookmark and Share

      Excerpts:
      Early drafts of the report advocated intimidating prisoners with dogs
      Among the issues to be addressed were ¡§policy considerations with respect to the choice of interrogation techniques, including contribution to intelligence collection, effect on treatment of captured U.S. military personnel, effect on detainee prosecutions, historical role of U.S. armed forces in conducting interrogations, recommendations for employment of particular interrogation techniques by [Defense Department] interrogators."
      • Source: Building A Legal Framework For Torture
        [ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/newsfull.php?newid=106312 ], Jason Leopold - ref_date 08/04/10, Aljazeera

  20. Links & Snippets Bookmark and Share


    1. Other Publications Bookmark and Share

      1. RNA Interference: Generic Block On Angiogenesis, Raghu Kalluri, Keizo Kanasaki, 08/04/03, Nature 452, 543-545. A virtue of using small interfering RNAs as therapeutics is their exquisite specificity. But when it comes to inhibiting blood-vessel growth, it seems that they can act generically without even entering a cell., DOI: 10.1038/452543a
      2. Archaeology: DNA From Fossil Feces Breaks Clovis Barrier, Michael Balter, 08/04/03, Science : 37. An international team reports online in Science this week what some experts consider the strongest evidence yet for an earlier peopling of the Americas: 14,000-year-old ancient DNA from fossilized human excrement (coprolites), found in caves in south-central Oregon.
      3. Microbiology: Germs Take a Bite Out of Antibiotics, Mitch Leslie, 08/04/04, Science : 33. A broad survey of soil microbes shows that numerous species devour even the most potent drugs, researchers report on page 100 of this week's issue of Science, fueling worries about the dwindling power of our main weapons against infections.
      4. Cancer Biology: All in the Stroma: Cancer's Cosa Nostra, Jean Marx, 08/04/04, Science: 38-41. After focusing for decades on what happens within tumor cells to make them go wrong, biologists are turning to the tumor environment and finding a network of coconspirators.
      5. Magnetic Measurements Hint at Toastier Superconductivity, Adrian Cho, 08/04/04, Science : 42-43. At the American Physical Society meeting, researchers reported evidence that superconductivity might persist in high-temperature superconductors up to at least 200 K, albeit in tiny, disconnected patches, implying that current materials may not have reached the ultimate limits.
      6. Climate: Blooms Like It Hot, Hans W. Paerl, Jef Huisman, 08/04/04, Science: 57-58. A link exists between global warming and the worldwide proliferation of harmful cyanobacterial blooms.
      7. Aztec Arithmetic Revisited: Land-Area Algorithms and Acolhua Congruence Arithmetic, Barbara J. Williams, Mar?a del Carmen Jorgey Jorge, 08/04/04, Science: 72-77. Analysis of ancient property records shows that the Aztecs used common algorithms and a distance standard for calculating land area and specific symbols to represent fractions.
      8. Entrainment of Neuronal Oscillations as a Mechanism of Attentional Selection, Peter Lakatos, George Karmos, Ashesh D. Mehta, Istvan Ulbert, Charles E. Schroeder, 08/04/04, Science : 110-113. In monkeys that are paying attention to a rhythmic stimulus, brain oscillations become tuned to the stimulus so that the response in the visual cortex is enhanced.
      9. Brain Regeneration From Pluripotent Stem Cells In Planarian, K. Agata, Y. Umesono, 2008/03/28, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2008.2260
      10. Social Networks In The Lek-Mating Wire-Tailed Manakin (Pipra Filicauda), T. B. Ryder, D. B. McDonald, J. G. Blake, P. G. Parker, B. A. Loiselle, 2008/04/01, Proceedings B: Biological Sciences, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2008.0205
      11. Darwin Told Us So: UBC Researcher Shows Natural Selection Speeds Up Speciation, 2008/04/03, Innovations-report
      12. Two Frontal Brain Areas Contribute Specifically To Certain Decision-making Processes, 2008/04/03, ScienceDaily & Public Library of Science
      13. Hydrogen Plane Takes To The Skies: Fuel-Cell Flight Points To The Future, Claims Boeing, I. Thomson, 2008/04/04, vnunet.com
      14. Brain DNA 'Remodeled' In Alcoholism, 2008/04/04, ScienceDaily & University of Illinois at Chicago
      15. A Little Anxiety Is Sometimes A Good Thing, Study Shows, 2008/04/05, ScienceDaily & Association for Psychological Science
      16. Systemic Crises And Growth, R. Rancière, A. Tornell, F. Westermann, Feb. 2008, Online 2008/02/05, Quarterly Journal of Economics, DOI: 10.1162/qjec.2008.123.1.359
      17. Federal Government Information Policy And Public Policy Analysis: A Brief Overview, H. C. Relyea, Mar. 2008, online 2008/03/25, Library & Information Science Research, DOI: 10.1016/j.lisr.2007.11.004
      18. Searching For Memories, Sudoku, Implicit Check Bits, And The Iterative Use Of Not-Always-Correct Rapid Neural Computation, J. J. Hopfield - hopfieldaprinceton.edu, May 2008, Online 2008/03/31, Neural Computation, DOI: 10.1162/neco.2007.09-06-345

    2. Webcast Announcements Bookmark and Share

      1. 7th Intl Conf on Complex Systems (ICCS), Boston, MA, 07/10/28-11/02
      2. Reseau Nationale des Systemes Complexes , (in French), 2007
      3. World Economic Forum , Davos, Switzerland, 08/01/22-27
      4. TED Talks, TED Conferences LLC , since 2006
      5. Talking Robots: The PodCast on Robotics and AI, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland, 06/11/03
      6. Potentials of Complexity Science for Business, Governments, and the Media 2006, Budapest, Hungary, 06/08/03-05
      7. 6th Intl Conf on Complex Systems (ICCS), Boston, MA, 06/06/25-30
      8. Artificial Life X, 10th Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, Bloomington, IN, USA. 2006/06/03-07
      9. 6th Understanding Complex Systems Symposium, Urbana-Champaign, Il, 06/05/15-18
      10. Ralph Abraham on Complexity Digest, , Calcutta, India, 05/12/27
      11. An Afternoon with Michael Crichton, Washington, 05/11/06
      12. Illuminating the Shadow of the Future, Ann Arbor, Mi 05/09/23-25
      13. Open Network of Centres of Excellence in Complex Systems - Brainstorming Meeting, Paris, France 05/09/19-23
      14. Complexity, Science & Society Conference 2005, U. Liverpool, UK 2005/09/11-14
      15. ECAL 2005 - VIIIth European Conference on Artificial Life, Canterbury, Kent, UK 2005/09/5-9
      16. T. Irene Sanders, Executive Director and Founder, The Washington Center for Complexity & Public Policy, 05/08/27, QuickTime video (10:38 min), Podcast
      17. North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity 2005 Conference, Virtual Conference Network, St. Pete's Beach, Florida, 05/06/09-11
      18. Understanding Complex Systems - Computational Complexity and Bioinformatics, Virtual Conference Network, Urbana-Champaign, Il, UIUC, 05/05/16-19
      19. Nonlinearity, Fluctuations, and Complexity, with a celebration of the 65th birthday of Gregoire Nicolis. , Complexity Session, Universite' Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, 05/03/16
      20. 1st European Conference on Complex Systems, Torino, Italy, 04/12/5-7
      21. From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela (1946-2001), Paris, France, 2004/06/18-20
      22. Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium, 04/05/26-28
      23. International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21
      24. Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H., Internet-First University Press, 1994
      25. CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and Live Events
      26. Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998
      27. Edge Videos


    3. Conference Announcements Bookmark and Share

      1. Fumee 1 - 1St Futures Meeting - Understanding Anticipatory Systems, Rovereto (Italy), 08/04/10-12
      2. 1st Intl Conf on Social Entrepreneurship & Complexity, Garden City, NY, USA, 08/04/10-12
      3. Emergence In The Physical And Biological World: A Notion In Search Of Clarification, Erice (Italy), 08/04/12-16
      4. BIO_IT World Conf & Expo, Boston, MA, 08/04/28-30
      5. Chaos And Dynamics In Biological Networks, Cargese, Corsica, France, 08/05/05-09
      6. Brittle Fracture and Plastic Slip: from the Atomistic to the Engineering Scale, Udine, Italy, 08/05/26-30
      7. CHAOS2008 Chaotic Modeling and Simulation International Conference, Chania, Crete, Greece, 08/06/03-06
      8. International Conference on Chaos, Complexity & Conflict, Omaha, NE, 08/06/05-07
      9. 4th Organization Studies Summer Workshop: "Embracing Complexity: Advancing Ecological Understanding in Organization Studies", Pissouri, Cyprus, 08/06/05-07
      10. Cambridge Healthtech Institute's Tenth Annual... Applying Systems Biology, San Francisco, CA, 08/06/09-11
      11. AUTOMATA 2008, EPSRC Workshop Cellular Automata Theory and Applications, Bristol, UK, 08/06/12-14
      12. 9th Intl Mathematica Symposium, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 08/06/20-24
      13. The 14th Intl Conf on Auditory Display (ICAD), Paris, France, 08/06/24-27
      14. The 3rd Intl Symp on Knowledge Communication and Peer Reviewing: KCPR 2008, Orlando, Florida, USA, 08/06/29-07/02
      15. The 3rd Intl Symp on Knowledge Communication and Conferences: KCC 2008, Orlando, Florida, USA, 08/06/29-07/02
      16. 7th Intl Summer School and Conf "Let's Face Chaos through Nonlinear Dynamics", Maribor, Slovenia, 08/06/29-07/13
      17. The 12th World Multi-Conf on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics: WMSCI 2008, Orlando, Florida, USA, 08/06/29-07/02
      18. From Animals To Animats 10 - The 10th Intl Conf on the Simulation Of Adaptive Behavior (SAB'08), Osaka, Japan, 08/07/07-12
      19. Complex Systems and Social Simulations, CEU Summer University, Budapest, Hungary, 08/07/07-18
      20. 2008 Gordon Research Conf on Oscillations & Dynamic Instabilities in Chemical Systems, Waterville, ME, 08/07/13-18
      21. Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics Models, Udine, Italy, 08/07/14-18
      22. 1st Intl Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronization (INDS'08), Klagenfurt, Austria, 08/07/18-19
      23. Scratch@MIT,Cambridge, MA, 08/07/24-26
      24. 8th Intl Conf on Epigenetic Robotics: Modeling Cognitive Development in Robotic Systems, Brighton, UK, 08/07/31-08/02
      25. On the Edge: Healthcare in the Age of Complexity, Kansas City, MO, 08/08/03-05
      26. Stochastic Resonance 2008, Perugia, Italy, 08/08/17-21
      27. 4th Intl Conf on Natural Computation (ICNC'08) - 5th Intl Conf on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD'08), Jinan, China, 08/08/25-27
      28. Intl Conf DEscribing COmplex Systems (DECOS), Zadar, Croatia, 08/09/03-07
      29. EPOS 2008, III Edition of Epistemological Perspectives on Simulation, Lisbon, Portugal, 08/10/02-03


    4. Other Announcements Bookmark and Share

      1. A short notice from Dean LeBaron

        Dear ComDig Readers,

        Our editor, Dr. Gottfried Mayer, is affectionately esteemed by many of you -- as readers, you know he devotes himself unselfishly to widening our knowledge of complexity science. He was recently diagnosed with advanced colon cancer and given a timetable of a very few years. Knowing Gottfried, you can imagine that, in addition to the customary processes of chemotherapy, he would explore other frontier therapies, especially those arising out of interdisciplinary applications of complexity. These are expensive ... if he can find them.

        Many of you have sent your good wishes and indicated your desire to assist. With Gottfried's permission, I am posting this note with information, below, about how to send contributions to him. Please indicate the source since Gottfried will want to express his warm gratitude.

        I know that Gottfried, the good scientist that he is, will explain from time to time what he is doing and what the results are ... and we will follow his progress with great interest and hope.

        Dean LeBaron
        Publisher, Complexity Digest

        Bank Information:

        If your contribution is made by check:
        Please mail the check, payable to "Gottfried Mayer", to:
        Manufacturers & Traders Trust
        2080 Western Avenue
        20 Mall
        Guilderland, NY 12084 USA
        (on the back of the check, please write: "For Deposit Only: Account # 983 338 3814")

        If your contribution is made by wire:
        Manufacturers & Traders Trust
        2080 Western Avenue
        20 Mall

        Guilderland, NY 12084 USA
        SWIFT Code# MANTUS33
        UID: 209 791
        ABA routing # 022 00 00 46 [for US wire transfers]
        Account # 983 338 3814
        Ref. Gottfried Mayer