Fractal Or Fake? - Novel Art-Authentication Method Is Challenged, Science News
Jackson Pollock couldn't possibly have been thinking of fractals when he started flinging and dripping paint from a stick onto canvas. After all, mathematicians didn't develop the idea of a fractal until a couple of decades later. But if one physicist is right, Pollock ended up painting fractals anyway. And that mathematical quality may explain why Pollock's seemingly chaotic streams of paint come together into an ordered, beautiful whole, and why the technique brought Pollock acclaim as a master of American abstract painting.
PAINTING UNDER A MICROSCOPE. Fractals are objects that look the same under magnification as they do as a whole. One researcher says that Jackson Pollock paintings have that property. Pollock, Jackson, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund, image Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington
Islamic "Quasicrystals" Predate Penrose Tiles, PhysicsWeb
Islamic architects and mathematicians were creating quasi-crystalline patterns some 500 years before similar patterns were described in the West, claim two physicists in the US. Peter J Lu of Harvard University and Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University say that sets of special tiles developed around the 13th century allowed artisans to use complex mathematics to create the fantastic geometric patterns that adorn mosques, palaces and other buildings in the Muslim world.
Archway from the Darb-i Imam shrine with two overlapping girih patterns.(Courtesy: Science)
Advanced Geometry of Islamic Art, BBC News
A study of medieval Islamic art has shown some of its geometric patterns use principles established centuries later by modern mathematicians. Researchers in the US have found 15th Century examples that use the concept of quasicrystalline geometry. This indicates intuitive understanding of complex mathematical formulae, even if the artisans had not worked out the underlying theory (...)
Pattern from 15th Century archway of Darb-i Imam shrine, Isfahan, Iran [Image courtesy of Peter Lu/Science]
Connections: Bringing Cartoons To Life, Nature
Excerpts: To understand cells as dynamic systems, mathematical tools are needed to fill the gap between molecular interactions and physiological consequences. (...)
For the simplest connections, such stories may be convincing, but as the mechanisms become more complex, intuitive explanations become more error prone and harder to believe.
A better way to build bridges from molecular biology to cell physiology is to recognize that a network of interacting genes and proteins is a dynamic system evolving in space and time according to fundamental laws of reaction, diffusion and transport.
Animal Behaviour: Planning For Breakfast, Nature
Excerpts: It is commonly believed that planning for the future is a skill unique to humans. Could other animals, even those as evolutionarily distant as western scrub-jays, share this skill with us? (...)
The authors found that the birds cached three times as many pine nuts in the no-breakfast room as in the breakfast room. Importantly, all the data came from this one test: learning how their choices determined the next day's breakfast could not have influenced the jays' behaviour.
Planning For The Future By Western Scrub-Jays, Nature
Excerpts: Knowledge of and planning for the future is a complex skill that is considered by many to be uniquely human. We are not born with it; children develop a sense of the future at around the age of two and some planning ability by only the age of four to five. According to the Bischof-Kohler hypothesis, only humans can dissociate themselves from their current motivation and take action for future needs: (...), and any future-oriented behaviours they exhibit are either fixed action patterns or cued by their current motivational state.
Primate Behavior: Spear-Wielding Chimps Seen Hunting Bush Babies, Science
Excerpts: The right to bear arms has long been considered a distinctly human privilege. But apparently the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution applies to chimpanzees too, at least while they're out hunting small game.
Researchers in Senegal recently spotted wild chimpanzees biting the tips of sticks, which they then used like spears to jab small primates called bush babies. Anthropologist Jill Pruetz of Iowa State University in Ames was astonished when her project manager saw a chimp thrust a sharpened stick into a hole in a tree and pull out a limp bush baby to eat, according to a report in the 6 March issue of Current Biology.
Hunting Chimps May Change View Of Human Evolution, Reuters
Excerpts: Chimpanzees have been seen using spears to hunt bush babies, U.S. researchers said on Thursday in a study that demonstrates a whole new level of tool use and planning by our closest living relatives.
Perhaps even more intriguing, it was only the females who fashioned and used the wooden spears, Jill Pruetz and Paco Bertolani of Iowa State University reported. Bertolani saw an adolescent female chimp use a spear to stab a bush baby as it slept in a tree hollow, pull it out and eat it.
Adaptive Velocity Strategy For Swarm Aggregation, Phys
Excerpts: Collective behaviors of biological swarms have attracted significant interest in recent years, but much attention and efforts have been focused on constant speed models in which all agents are assumed to move with the same constant speed. One limitation of the constant speed assumption without attraction function is that global convergence is quite difficult or even practically impossible to achieve if the speed is relatively fast.
Excerpts: Scientists in China say they have succeeded in controlling the flight of pigeons with micro electrodes planted in their brains, state media reports.
Scientists at the Robot Engineering Technology Research Centre at Shandong University of Science and Technology said their electrodes could command the pigeons to fly right or left, up or down, Xinhua news agency said.
"The implants stimulate different areas of the pigeon's brain according to signals sent by the scientists via computer and force the bird to comply with their commands," Xinhua said.
Excerpts: New research pinpoints specific areas in sound processing centers in the brains of macaque monkeys that shows enhanced activity when the animals watch a video. This study confirms a number of recent findings but contradicts classical thinking, in which hearing, taste, touch, sight, and smell are each processed in distinct areas of the brain and only later integrated. (...) "This study confirms that what we used to call the 'auditory cortex' should really be thought of as much more complex in terms of its response properties," says Robert Zatorre (...).
Universal And Nonuniversal Features In A Model Of City Traffic, Phys.
Excerpts: The complex behavior that occurs when traffic lights are synchronized is studied. Two strategies are considered: all lights in phase, and a "green wave" with a propagating green signal. It is found that traffic variables such as traveling time, velocity, and fuel consumption, near resonance, follow critical scaling laws. For the green wave, it is shown that time and velocity scaling laws hold even for random separation between traffic lights.
Vitamins 'Could Shorten Lifespan', BBC News
Excerpts: Taking certain vitamin supplements may adversely affect people's lifespan, researchers have suggested. Millions worldwide use antioxidant supplements such as vitamins A and E, and beta-carotene.
Looking at dozens of previous research studies, Copenhagen University researchers suggested these appeared to raise, not lower, the risk of death. A supplements industry expert said the Journal of the American Medical Association study was fatally flawed.
But nutritionists said it reinforced the need to eat a balanced diet, rather than relying on supplements.
A Critique of Pure Reason, NY Times
Excerpts: The relationships children have outside school shape their performance inside the school. (...)
Children do have inborn temperaments and intelligence. Nevertheless, students make the most of their natural dispositions when they have a secure emotional base from which to explore, and even the brightest children stumble when there is chaos inside. (...)
And one thing is clear: It's crazy to have educational policies that, in effect, chop up children's brains into the rational cortex, which the government ministers to in schools, and the emotional limbic system, which the government ignores.
Assessment: Standardized Tests Predict Graduate Students' Success, Science
Excerpts: Accurately predicting which students are best suited for postbaccalaureate graduate school programs benefits the programs, the students, and society at large, because it allows education to be concentrated on those most likely to profit. Standardized tests are used to forecast which students will be the most successful and obtain the greatest benefit from graduate education in disciplines ranging from medicine to the humanities and from physics to law. However, controversy remains about whether such tests effectively predict performance in graduate school.
Grades Rise, but Reading Skills Do Not, NY Times
Excerpts: High school students nationwide are taking seemingly tougher courses and earning better grades, but their reading skills are not improving through the effort, according to two federal reports released here Thursday that cite grade inflation as a possible explanation.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress, an exam commonly known as the nation's report card, found that the reading skills of 12th graders tested in 2005 were significantly worse than those of students in 1992, when a comparable test was first given, and essentially flat since students previously took the exam in 2002.
A History Department Bans Citing Wikipedia as a Research Source, NY Times
Excerpts: Although Middlebury's history department has banned Wikipedia in citations, it has not banned its use. Don Wyatt, the chairman of the department, said a total ban on Wikipedia would have been impractical, not to mention close-minded, because Wikipedia is simply too handy to expect students never to consult it.
At Middlebury, a discussion about the new policy is scheduled on campus on Monday, with speakers poised to defend and criticize using the site in research.
Crisis, Charisma, And Consequences: Evidence From The 2004 U.S. Presidential Election, J. Politics
Abstract: We investigate how conditions of crisis affect perceptions of charisma and how these, in turn, affect blame attribution and self-sacrificial behavior. Our data are from a 2004 experimental study that preceded the U.S. presidential election, in which we manipulated concerns of a terrorist attack. The results show that those in the Crisis condition rated Bush higher on perceptions of charisma compared to those in the Good Times condition. The Crisis condition also directly and indirectly, via perceptions of charisma, affected whether Bush was blamed for failures in Iraq and our subjects' willingness to sacrifice their personal resources for his candidacy.
Irreversible Opinion Spreading On Scale-Free Networks, Phys.
Excerpts: We study the dynamical and critical behavior of a model for irreversible opinion spreading on Barabasi-Albert (BA) scale-free networks by performing extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The opinion spreading within an inhomogeneous society is investigated by means of the magnetic Eden model, a nonequilibrium kinetic model for the growth of binary mixtures in contact with a thermal bath. The deposition dynamics, which is studied as a function of the degree of the occupied sites, shows evidence for the leading role played by hubs in the growth process.
Getting Back To The Rough Ground: Deception And 'Social Living', Phil. Tran. Biol. Sc.
Excerpts: At the heart of the social intelligence hypothesis is the central role of 'social living'. But living is messy and psychologists generally seek to avoid this mess in the interests of getting clean data and cleaner logical explanations. The study of deception as intelligent action is a good example of the dangers of such avoidance. We still do not have a full picture of the development of deceptive actions in human infants and toddlers or an explanation of why it emerges. (...) This functional analysis shows the onset of non-verbal deceptive acts to be surprisingly early. (...)
Experimental Evolution In Robots Probes The Emergence Of Biological Communication, ScienceDaily
Excerpts: Using an ingenious approach involving virtual robots that possess evolvable genomes, researchers have identified key factors that may play important roles in determining the manner in which communication arises during the evolution of social organisms. (...) Communication is critical for social organisms to ensure their ecological success, but the evolution of communication is very challenging to study because of the difficulty of performing experimental evolution with social animals, and the lack of fossil evidence for changes in communication skills over time. In the new work, the researchers studied the changing behavior of 100 "colonies" of ten virtual robots over 500 generations, (...).
Excerpt: The US government should use the power of the Internet to engage citizens directly in relief operations, say two computer scientists. Use of wikis, blogs and other 'community' tools could help to coordinate responses to natural or man-made emergencies.
Alongside the professional emergency response to events such as terrorist attacks, hurricanes or flu pandemics, would sit an online community of millions of eyes and ears - reporting on situations, sharing information and coordinating aid. (...)
Plant Biology: The Flower Of Seduction, Nature
Excerpts: Hundreds of orchid species lure their pollinators with the promise of sex, only to send them away unfulfilled. (...)
Some 30,000 species strong, orchids are one of the largest groups of flowering plants; collectors covet their elaborate and sometimes rude-looking flowers. But the plants are also unusual in their dishonesty. Although most insect-pollinated plants pay their pollinators in energy-rich nectar, about a third of orchids offer no rewards.
Scientists Invent Real-Life 'Tricorder' For Chemical Analysis, Purdue Univ News
Excerpts: Purdue University researchers have created a handheld sensing system its creators liken to Star Trek's "tricorder" used to analyze the chemical components of alien worlds. But the system could have down-to-earth applications, such as testing foods for dangerous bacterial contaminants including salmonella, which was recently found in a popular brand of peanut butter.
The new portable system is an ultrafast chemical-analysis tool that has numerous promising uses for detecting everything from cancer in the liver to explosives residues on luggage and "biomarkers" in urine that provide an early warning for diseases.
Physical Chemistry: Oil On Troubled Waters, Nature
Excerpts: The nature of the boundary between water and oil is crucial to many nanometre-scale assembly processes, including protein folding. But until now, what the interface really looks like remained in dispute. (...)
(...) slight adjustment of parameters proves sufficient to move the system from a regime in which the [nano, Ed] tube is mostly filled with water, to another in which the tube is mostly empty. The dynamics of the transformation involve collective motion of many water molecules, suggesting the possibility of nanometre-scale steam engines that are perhaps already harnessed in some biomolecular motors.
Foundations For Cooperating With Control Noise In The Manipulation Of Quantum Dynamics, Phys.
Excerpts: This paper develops the theoretical foundations for the ability of a control field to cooperate with noise in the manipulation of quantum dynamics. The noise enters as run-to-run variations in the control amplitudes, phases, and frequencies with the observation being an ensemble average over many runs as is commonly done in the laboratory. Weak field perturbation theory is developed to show that noise in the amplitude and frequency components of the control field can enhance the process of population transfer in a multilevel ladder system.
Limits Set On Size Of Dark Matter Clumps, PhysicsWeb
Excerpts: But despite data hoarded from almost 300 supernovae, the physicists could find no dispersion caused by MCOs ("Massive Compact Objects", Ed.) larger than one-hundredth the mass of the Sun, implying there is an 89% certainty they do not exist at all. Moreover, they claim that MCOs larger than one-tenth the mass of the Earth can be confidently "eliminated" as the sole constituent of dark matter.
(...) had been considering faint stars, neutron stars and black holes as significant constituents of dark matter. (...) suggest that dark matter is more likely made of WIMPs ["Weakly Interacting Massive Particles", i.e. particles that don't feel electromagnetic forces and hence are not affected by light, Ed].
Editor's Note: One apparent problem with WIMPs is that they have "no backbone" or any force that would keep them from collapsing into a black hole. Ordinary matter can build up pressure that counteracts gravity through electromagnetic repulsion. If I am missing something, I hope a reader will clarify the issue.
Alien Light: Taking The Spectra Of Extrasolar Planets, Science News
Astronomers have for the first time recorded the spectra of light emitted by two extrasolar planets. This achievement provides a new, direct way to analyze the atmosphere of alien worlds light-years from Earth.
OBSCURED ORB. Clouds may sheathe the atmosphere of some extrasolar planets, masking the presence of water vapor at lower altitudes, as in this artist's depiction. JPL-Caltech/NASA
Obtained by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, the infrared spectra represent a milestone in the study of distant planets, says David Charbonneau of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. Both planets show a puzzling lack of water vapor, he adds.
Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
Pakistan Denies Hosting Bin Laden, Camps, Boston Globe
Excerpts: Pakistan on Wednesday rejected a claim by the U.S. intelligence chief that Osama bin Laden and his deputy were hiding in northwestern Pakistan, and that al-Qaida was setting up camps near the Afghan border.
President Gen. Pervez Musharraf, however, acknowledged that foreign militants were in Pakistan's tribal regions along the Afghan border and warned them to leave, the state-run news agency reported. It was not clear from the report whether Musharraf named any particular militants.
Religious Fundamentalisms, Territories And 'Globalization', Econ. & Soc.
Excerpts: This paper analyses what the two main monotheist religious fundamentalisms - Islam and Christianity - have had to say about the international system, and in particular their attitudes towards, and visions of, 'globalization'. The paper concentrates upon the fundamentalist position in respect of the two religious doctrines discussed while fully recognizing that the non-fundamentalists and mainstream traditions in each case do not necessarily share the sentiments announced by - or pursued by - their fundamentalist co-religionists. (...) In addition, the paper concentrates upon the attitudes of these positions towards the idea of 'territory' (...).
Links & Snippets
- Synchronization Of Noisy Delayed Feedback Systems With Delayed Coupling, Nikola Buri, Kristina Todorovi, Neboj?a Vasovi, 07/02/16, Phys. Rev. E 75, 026209
- Desynchronization Waves In Small-World Networks, Kwangho Park, Liang Huang, Ying-Cheng Lai, 07/02/21, Phys. Rev. E 75, 026211
- Learning Rate And Attractor Size Of The Single-Layer Perceptron, Martin S. Singleton, Alfred W. Hubler, 07/02/26, Phys. Rev. E 75, 026704
- No Sleep Means No New Brain Cells, 2007/02/10, BBC News
- Right-Handed Snakes: Convergent Evolution Of Asymmetry For Functional Specialization, M. Hoso, T. Asami, M. Hori, 2007/02/16, Biology Letters, DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2006.0600
- Insights Into Neural Stem Cell Biology From Flies, B. Egger, J. M. Chell, A. H. Brand, 2007/02/19, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2006.2011
- Chimpanzees 'Hunt Using Spears', 2007/02/22, BBC News
- UK Boffins Work On Lip-Reading Machine: Softwear Will Bee Used To Tickle Chrome, I. Williams, 2007/02/22, vnunet.com
- New Research Finds People And Pigeons See Eye To Eye, 2007/02/22, Innovations-report
- Scientists Produce Neurons From Human Skin, 2007/02/22, ScienceDaily & Université Laval
- How Stem Cells Are Regulated, 2007/02/23, Innovations-report
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells For Brain Repair?, S.-C. Zhang, X.-J. Li, M. A. Johnson, M. T. Pankratz, 2007/02/23, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2006.2014
- Storing Digital Data In Living Organisms, 2007/02/23, ScienceDaily & American Chemical Society
- Coldest Lab In Chicago To Simulate Hot Physics Of Early Universe, Explore Futuristic World Of Quantum Computing, 2007/02/24, ScienceDaily & University of Chicago
- What Is The Enemy Of My Enemy? Causes And Consequences Of Imbalanced International Relations, 1816-2001, Z. Maoz, L. G. Terris, R. D. Kuperman, Feb. 2007, The Journal of Politics, DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2508.2007.00497.x
- English As An International Language In Non-Native Settings In An Era Of Globalization, M. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, M. Yoneda, Nov. 2006, online 2007/01/16, Journal Comparative Sociology, DOI: 10.1163/156913306779147326
- World Economic Forum , Davos, Switzerland, 07/01/24-28
TED Talks, TED Conferences LLC , since 2006
Talking Robots: The PodCast on Robotics and AI, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland, 06/11/03
Potentials of Complexity Science for Business, Governments, and the Media 2006, Budapest, Hungary, 06/08/03-05
- 6th Intl Conf on Complex Systems (ICCS), Boston, MA, 06/06/25-30
Artificial Life X,
10th Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, Bloomington, IN, USA. 2006/06/03-07
6th Understanding Complex Systems Symposium, Urbana-Champaign, Il, 06/05/15-18
Ralph Abraham on Complexity Digest, , Calcutta, India, 05/12/27
- An Afternoon with Michael Crichton, Washington, 05/11/06
Illuminating the Shadow of the Future, Ann Arbor, Mi 05/09/23-25
Open Network of Centres of Excellence in Complex Systems - Brainstorming Meeting, Paris, France 05/09/19-23
Complexity, Science & Society Conference 2005, U. Liverpool, UK 2005/09/11-14
ECAL 2005 - VIIIth European Conference on Artificial Life,
Canterbury, Kent, UK 2005/09/5-9
T. Irene Sanders, Executive Director and Founder, The Washington Center for Complexity & Public Policy, 05/08/27, QuickTime video (10:38 min), Podcast
- North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity 2005 Conference, Virtual Conference Network, St. Pete's Beach, Florida, 05/06/09-11
- Understanding Complex Systems - Computational Complexity and Bioinformatics, Virtual Conference Network, Urbana-Champaign, Il, UIUC, 05/05/16-19
- Nonlinearity, Fluctuations, and Complexity, with a celebration of the 65th birthday of Gregoire Nicolis. , Complexity Session, Universite' Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, 05/03/16
1st European Conference on Complex Systems, Torino, Italy, 04/12/5-7
From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela (1946-2001), Paris, France, 2004/06/18-20
Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium, 04/05/26-28
International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21
Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H., Internet-First University Press, 1994
- CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and Live Events
- Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998
- Edge Videos
Unconventional Computation: Quo Vadis?, Santa Fe, NM, 07/03/20-23
Complex Social Systems Course
at the London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom, 07/03/20-28
NEXUS for Change, Bowling Green, Ohio, 07/03/22-23
Intl Conf on Morphological Computation, Venice, Italy, 07/03/26-28
Narrative Techniques for Business, Seattle, 07/03/26, Boston, 07/03/29
American Society for Cybernetics (ASC) 2007 Conference,
Urbana IL, 07/03/29-04/01
Storytelling and Complexity in Human Systems, Las Vegas, NV, USA, 07/03/31-04/01
4th Lake Arrowhead Conference on Human Complex Systems,
Lake Arrowhead, CA, 07/04/25-29
Intl Conf on Morphological Computation, Venice Italy, 07/03/26-28
Capturing Business Complexity with Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation
Useful, Usable, and Used Techniques - A Course on Business Applications, Argonne Natl Lab, Woodridge, IL, 07/04/16-20
- Complexity and Organizational Resilience
The Village, Pohnpei, Micronesia, 07/05
9th GEF -The World Festival of Creativity in Schools, Sanremo ITALY, 07/05/02-06
UCS 2007 - Understanding Complex Systems, Urbana-Champaign, Ill, 07/05/14-17
- 2nd Intl Conf on Built Environment Complexity - Embracing complexity thinking in built environments, Cape Town South Africa, 07/05/21-25
ECO 2007 Summit: Ecological Complexity and Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for 21st-Century Ecology, Beijing, China, 07/05/22-27
2007 IEEE/ICME Intl Conf on Complex Medical Engineering-CME2007, Beijing, China, 07/05/23-27
Analysis and Control of Complex Networks, Milan, Italy, 07/05/24-26
The 7th Intl Workshop on Meta-Synthesis and Complex Systems, Beijing, 07/05/27-30
2nd Intl Wkshp on Engineering Emergence in Decentralised Autonomic Systems EEDAS 2007, Jacksonville, Fl, 07/06/11-15
SYMMETRY IN NONLINEAR MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS, Kiev, Ukraine, 07/06/24-30
Summer School In Complexity Science, London, UK, 07/07/08-17
2007 Genetic And Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2007), London, UK, 07/07/07-11
22nd European Conference on Operational Research
EURO XXII, Prague, Czech Republic, 07/07/08-11
SASO 2007 - First IEEE Intl Conf Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems
, Boston, Mass., USA, 07/07/09-11
IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning 2007,
Imperial College London, 07/07/11-13
NKS 2007 Wolfram Science Conference,
Burlington, VT, 07/07/13-15
Complex Change Webinar: Planning in the Midst of Chaos, 07/07/17
Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences
17th Annual Intl Conf,
Orange, Ca, USA, 07/07/27-29
ICCM 2007 - 8th Intl Conf on Cognitive Modeling, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 07/07/27-29
Natural Complexity: Data and Theory in Dialogue, Cambridge, UK, 07/08/13-17
ECAL 2oo7 - 9th European Conference on Artificial Life
, Lisbon, Portugal, 07/09/10-14
European Conference on Complex Systems 2007 (ECCS'07) , Dresden, Germany, 07/10/01-05
2007 IEEE/WIC/ACM Intl Joint Conf on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology (WI-IAT'07), Silicon Valley, USA, 07/11/02-05
KSS 2007 - 8th Intl Symposium on Knowledge and Systems Sciences, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan, 07/11/05-07
Call for Papers - Course/Book Announcements
EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION IN PRACTICE
Series in Studies in Computational Intelligence, Springer Verlag,
Chapter proposal due 07/02/04
- Call for Papers:
Special Issue of the Artificial Life journal on the Evolution of Complexity,
- Chaos and Complexity
Resources for Students and Teachers, 06/03/01