Crowd Wisdom vs. Google's Genius, Business Week
Excerpts: The founder of Wikipedia plans to take on the giant by offering search results that tap the knowledge of people across the Web.
Like Wikipedia, the new search engine will rely on the support of a volunteer community of users. The idea is that Web surfers and programmers will be able to bring their collective intelligence to bear, to fine-tune search results and make the experience more effective for everyone. "If you search in Google, a lot of the results are very, very good and a lot of the results are very, very bad," says Wales.
Google Searches U.S. Patent Database, IDG News Service
Excerpts: If you've ever dreamed up an ingenious new invention and then wondered if someone else has already made it, Google Inc.'s new patent search offering is for you.
The new site, www.google.com/patents, lets anyone search for U.S. patents by keyword, patent number, inventor and filing date. Users can view a scanned image of the original patent and zoom in on pages.
The main search page displays five random patents each time the page is visited. Recent inventions that have popped up include a toy skunk, a pocket protector, a toupee and a doll that has delayed wetting and crying action. (...)
Social Networking Tops 2006 Search Rankings, vnunet.com
Excerpts: Google's newly released Year End Zeitgeist for 2006 shows that social networking is top of the search lists. After monitoring the most searched for terms on Google.com for the whole year, the search giant has revealed that social networking has dominated web searches. 'Bebo' took the crown as the most searched for term throughout the year, followed by 'MySpace'. Another expected entry for 2006 was 'world cup' in third place, (...). Current events were outlined by the leading search query 'who is Borat' and 'what is Hezbollah', (...).
Reclaiming The Human Stratum, Acknowledging The Complexity Of Social Behaviour, J. Theo. Soc.Behav.
Excerpts: Roy Bhaskar's Social Cube model (...) demonstrates that decision-making is regulated and transformed by a constantly evolving complexity of mechanisms emerging from physical, mental, material, human and social levels of reality. (...) this article demonstrates that the Somalia effect on the UN's failure in Rwanda was more complicated than the existing literature claims; it was "multi-layered", generated not only by intentional political calculations, as previous studies argue, but also by a multiplicity of other mechanisms operative at various levels, particularly cognitive dissonance in organisational learning at the unintentional or subconscious level.
Abstract: We use theory and methods from complexity science to examine dynamic patterns among activities undertaken by nascent entrepreneurs in the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics. We develop hypotheses predicting that certain dynamic patterns in start-up activities will lead to the emergence of new firms when: (1) the rate of start-up activities is high, (2) start-up activities are spread out over time, and (3) start-up activities are concentrated later rather than earlier over time. All three hypotheses are confirmed. The paper concludes with some suggestions for the role of complexity science for furthering insights into the process of organization creation.
A Methodology for Developing Simulation Models of Complex Systems, Ecological Modelling
Excerpt: While the complexity of ecological simulation models has increased along with advances in computer hardware, recent reviews have concluded that such complex models have generally not fulfilled their potential for advancing ecological understanding. This state of affairs is partially the result of little attention being given to methodological issues for developing simulation models. This paper presents one methodology for developing models of complex systems.
Better, Faster - And Easier To Use, Nature
Excerpts: The Pentagon is sinking millions of dollars into developing the next generation of supercomputers °X and plans to let non-military scientists and engineers share the benefits. (...)
But now, the Pentagon's crack research agency is funding the development of machines that, it hopes, will be shared by industry and university scientists, as well as by spies and weapons designers. That way, it figures, more people will write code to harness the computers' massive power °X and the cost and effort of developing applications will tumble.
Human Evolution: How Africa Learned To Love The Cow, Nature
Excerpts: The development of lactose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa is a fascinating tale of genetic convergence, reports Erika Check.
The Dinka people of southern Sudan, it is said, have 400 different words to refer to the cattle that they prize above all other things. The Maasai, who live in Kenya and northern Tanzania, have traditionally believed that all cattle on Earth were given to them by the gods, and value those in their possession accordingly. (...)
Physiology: Freaks Of Nature?, Nature
Excerpts: Their team had nine world-class racers run, cycle and kayak on lab machines nonstop for 24 hours (...). The group is still analysing the data, but one preliminary result suggests that ultraendurance exercise makes the energy-generating mitochondria in the athletes' muscles more efficient at using fat rather than glucose as fuel.
Fat generates more energy than glucose per kilogram, but the body can't normally burn fat when exercising very hard. The bodies of endurance racers may have found a way to go faster using fat as fuel, (...).
Physiology: Obesity And Gut Flora, Nature
Excerpts: The intestinal bacteria in obese humans and mice differ from those in lean individuals. Are these bacteria involved in how we regulate body weight, and are they a factor in the obesity epidemic? (...)
But our own genome is not the only one with which we need to be concerned. In particular, trillions of bacteria - collectively referred to as the microbiota - reside in our gastrointestinal tracts (...), and each brings its own genome to this genetic party.
This Party Doesn't Start Until The Hosts Arrive: Parasite Invasions May Depend On Host Invasions, Innovations-report
Excerpts: Disease causing organisms can be present in some areas where their hosts are not. If their hosts arrive, novel disease outbreaks may result. In the first comprehensive genetic analysis of an invasive marine host and its parasites, researchers trace invasion pathways of snails and trematodes from Japan to North America. Their results (...) have broad implications for identifying and mitigating spreading disease in a global economy. Simultaneously understanding the invasion pathways of disease-causing organisms and their hosts will be key in limiting future disease outbreaks-in humans, agriculture and wildlife. (...)
Ageing: Too Fast By Mistake, Nature
Excerpts: The intricate process of ageing involves numerous physiological pathways, together with genetic and environmental factors. Insight into this complex biology could come from studying a disorder that accelerates ageing.
Contrary to general expectation, human life expectancy in developed countries has not bumped into a ceiling, but continues to increase by around two years per decade - or five hours per day. The reason previous forecasts proved wrong is simple. It used to be assumed that the ageing process was programmed, that some inner clock set a limit to life.
Exercise Appears To Improve Brain Function Among Younger People, ScienceDaily
Excerpts: As an expanding body of work continues to confirm links between exercise and improved brain function in older adults, a new study (...) suggests similar improvements among younger populations as well. "Physical activity may be beneficial to cognition during early and middle periods of the human lifespan and may continue to protect against age-related loss of cognitive function during older adulthood," said Charles H. Hillman, (...). Hillman said (...) more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between physical activity and cognition for people of all ages. (...)
Controlling Confusion: Researchers Make Insight Into Memory, Forgetting, ScienceDaily
Excerpts: Why do we forget? Do memories decay on their own, or are they harmed by interference from similar memories? Using a technique called "transcranial magnetic stimulation" (TMS), brain researchers (...) may have found the answer. Although the notion of decay makes sense, Brad Postle, (...) says it may be inaccurate. "Psychologists have known for decades that the intuitive notion of decay is probably less of a factor in forgetting than is interference," he says. Interference occurs, he says, when "other remembered information disrupts, competes with or confuses the information that you want to remember." (...)
Axonal Site Of Spike Initiation Enhances Auditory Coincidence Detection, Nature
Excerpts: Neurons initiate spikes in the axon initial segment or at the first node in the axon. However, it is not yet understood how the site of spike initiation affects neuronal activity and function. In nucleus laminaris of birds, neurons (...) encode interaural time differences (ITDs) separately at each characteristic frequency (CF). Here we show, in nucleus laminaris of the chick, that the site of spike initiation in the axon is arranged at a distance from the soma, so as to achieve the highest ITD sensitivity at each CF.
Structural Biology: Dangerous Liaisons On Neurons, Nature
Excerpts: Crystal structures show that botulinum toxins bind simultaneously to two sites on neurons. This dual interaction allows them to use a Trojan-horse strategy to enter nerve terminals, with deadly effect.
Biomechanics: Rubber Bands Reduce The Cost Of Carrying Loads, Nature
Excerpts: Vertical movement of the hip during locomotion causes a loaded backpack to be accelerated with each step, which imposes large peak forces on the wearer. Here we show that using bungee cords to suspend the load from a backpack frame reduces not only its vertical movement, and hence its vertical force on the carrier, but also the energetic cost of walking with the pack. This permits larger loads to be carried while moving rapidly, and at the same time reduces the risk of orthopedic and muscular injury.
Editor's note: There was an article in Science a year ago that came basically to the same conclusion but additionally showed how electricity can be generated through the motion of the backpack. See
"Generating Electricity While Walking with Loads", in ComDig 2005-37.
No-Dad Dragons: Komodos Reproduce Without Males, Science News
Two female Komodo dragons in zoos have startled their keepers by laying viable eggs without any contribution from males.
WHERE'S PAPA? Flora is one of two zoo Komodo dragons that have laid viable eggs without mating. Inset: The fatherless child of the other solo Komodo mom works his way out of his egg. Chester Zoo Archives; (inset) I. Stephen
The world's largest lizard species had previously been observed to reproduce only in the usual mom-and-pop way, explains Kevin Buley of the Chester Zoo in England. So, he and the staff at the London Zoo were surprised when, at each institution, a female with no access to males managed to have offspring. Genetic tests have verified that each female was the sole parent of her clutch,(...).
Parthenogenesis In Komodo Dragons, Nature
Excerpts: Parthenogenesis, the production of offspring without fertilization by a male, is rare in vertebrate species, which usually reproduce after fusion of male and female gametes. Here we use genetic fingerprinting to identify parthenogenetic offspring produced by two female Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) that had been kept at separate institutions and isolated from males; one of these females subsequently produced additional offspring sexually. This reproductive plasticity indicates that female Komodo dragons may switch between asexual and sexual reproduction, depending on the availability of a mate °X a finding that has implications for the breeding of this threatened species in captivity.
- Source: Parthenogenesis In Komodo Dragons, Phillip C. Watts, Kevin R. Buley, Stephanie Sanderson, Wayne Boardman, Claudio Ciofi, Richard Gibson, DOI: 10.1038/4441021a, Nature 444, 1021-1022, 06/12/21
Intrasexual Competition And Sexual Selection In Cooperative Mammals, Nature
Excerpts: In most animals, the sex that invests least in its offspring competes more intensely for access to the opposite sex and shows greater development of secondary sexual characters than the sex that invests most. However, in some mammals where females are the primary care-givers, females compete more frequently or intensely with each other than males. A possible explanation is that, in these species, the resources necessary for successful female reproduction are heavily concentrated and intrasexual competition for breeding opportunities is more intense among females than among males.
- Source: Intrasexual Competition And Sexual Selection In Cooperative Mammals, T. H. Clutton-Brock, S. J. Hodge, G. Spong, A. F. Russell, N. R. Jordan, N. C. Bennett, L. L. Sharpe and M. B. Manser, DOI: 10.1038/nature05386, Nature 444, 1065-1068, 06/12/21
Biocomplexity And Conservation Of Biodiversity Hotspots, Phil. Tran. Biol. Sc.
Excerpts: The perspective of 'biocomplexity' in the form of 'coupled natural and human systems' represents a resource for the future conservation of biodiversity hotspots in three direct ways: (i) modelling the impact on biodiversity of private land-use decisions and public land-use policies, (ii) indicating how the biocultural history of a biodiversity hotspot may be a resource for its future conservation, and (iii) identifying and deploying the nodes of both the material and psycho-spiritual connectivity between human and natural systems in service to conservation goals. Three biocomplexity case studies of areas notable for their biodiversity, (...) are developed (...)
Climate Credits, Nature
Excerpts: Why change your lifestyle when you can pay a company to save your greenhouse-gas emissions for you? investigates whether carbon offsetting can really save the planet. (...)
The projects on offer vary hugely. The first problem is simply calculating the amount of carbon that needs to be offset. For example, the British Carbon Neutral Company calculates a return flight from London to Bangkok, Thailand, at 2.1 tonnes of CO2 per passenger, which it charges around 30 to offset.
- Source: Climate Credits, Quirin Schiermeier, DOI: 10.1038/444976a, Nature 444, 976-977, 06/12/21
What Happens When Two Nations Battle With Nukes?, News@Nature
100 Hiroshima-sized bombs would have an unprecedented effect on global climate. Punchstock More than 20 years ago, it was theorized that "a nuclear winter" would occur in the event of a superpower war using nuclear weapons. Now new computers, better climate-modeling techniques, and comparisons to natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions, shows that even a regional conflict would throw the planet into turmoil.
100 Hiroshima-sized bombs would have an unprecedented effect on global climate.
(...) And that's using less than 0.03% of the explosive yield of the planet's current total nuclear arsenal.
"Instantaneously, it would be colder than the little Ice Age," says Robock.
What A Flake - Computers Get The Hang Of Ice-Crystal Growth, Science News
The software entrepreneur and scientific maverick Stephen Wolfram recently reasserted claims made by him and others in the 1980s that simple computer algorithms, called cellular automata, can create realistic snowflake shapes.
ON A PEDESTAL. This three-dimensional, simulated ice crystal resembles a common, simple type of natural snowflake: a hexagonal column whose faces are indented because they grow more slowly than the column's edges. Griffeath and Gravner
A cellular automaton generates a pattern by coloring each location on a grid according to a rule that takes into account the colors of neighboring locations. For snowflake simulations, such computer programs operate on a honeycomb because ice crystals, considered at the molecular level, are made up of water molecules arranged in hexagons.
Oceanography: Creating The Perfect Wave, Nature
Excerpts: The exact details are proprietary, but in the simplest terms, the important factors are the slope of the reef on its ocean side - which helps determine when and how a wave will break on the landward side - and the angle of the reef in relation to incoming swells, known as the 'peel angle'. For good surfing, it is essential that waves do not break all at once but peel - or break in such a way that surfers can ride in front of the crest on an open wave face, or even inside the breaking portion, known as the barrel.
Mathematics: Proof At A Roll Of The Dice, Nature
Excerpts: (...) computer scientists, for their part, marvel at what they call PCP, shorthand for probabilistically checkable proof. Simply stated, this is the curious phenomenon that the mere ability to toss coins makes it possible to check the most complex of mathematical proofs at no more than a passing glance. (...) In the short years of its existence, PCP has revolutionized the field of approximation algorithms - methods for finding nearly optimal solutions to problems that cannot be solved exactly within a reasonable time.
Crafty Geometry - Mathematicians Are Knitting And Crocheting To Visualize Complex Surfaces, Science News
For years, Osinga and Krauskopf, both of the University of Bristol in England, had been studying the Lorenz manifold, a complicated surface that emerges from a model of chaotic weather systems. The pair had created an algorithm to generate 2-dimensional computer visualizations of the surface, but Osinga found the flat images unsatisfying. When Krauskopf asked his question, she suddenly realized that the computer algorithm could be interpreted as crochet instructions. "I had to try it," she says.
CHAOTIC CRAFTWORK. A crocheted Lorenz manifold brings the shape's swirls into sharp relief. Univ. of Bristol
Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
U.S. Policy In The Horn Of Africa May Aid Al-Qaida, Experts Warn, McClatchy Newspapers
Excerpts: As fighting intensified Friday between Somali Islamists and an Ethiopian intervention force, Western diplomats and experts warned that U.S. policy in the Horn of Africa - intended to curb Islamic radicalism - may not only be fueling this newest conflict, but also may be making it easier for al-Qaida to gain a foothold in the strategic region. (...)
The Bush administration has publicly denounced the Islamists who control most of southern Somalia as al-Qaida puppets, reinforcing a widespread belief that the United States tacitly supports Christian-ruled Ethiopia's intervention into the overwhelmingly Muslim country.
Links & Snippets
- Neurobiology: Auditory Fidelity, Nature
- Complex Dynamics and Empirical Evidence, Domenico Delli Gatti, Edoardo Gaffeo, Mauro Gallegati, Gianfranco Giulioni, Alan Kirman, Antonio Palestrini, Alberto Russo, 2006/07/01, Information Sciences 177(5):1204-1221, DOI: 10.1016/j.ins.2006.08.003
- System Will Allow Police To Monitor Internal Emails, T. Young, 2006/12/14, vnunet.com
- Individuals From Different-Looking Animal Species May Group Together To Confuse Shared Predators: Simulations With Artificial Neural Networks, C. R. Tosh, A. L. Jackson, G. D. Ruxton, 2006/12/19, Proceedings: Biological Sciences, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2006.3760
- Virtual Experiences Can Cause Embellished, False Memories, 2006/12/20, Innovations-report
- Eat Now, Pay Later? Evidence Of Deferred Food-Processing Costs In Diving Seals, C. E. Sparling, M. A. Fedak, D. Thompson, 2006/12/20, Biology Letters, DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2006.0566
- Boolean Delay Equations: A Simple Way of Looking at Complex Systems, Michael Ghil, Ilya Zaliapin, Barbara Coluzzi, 2006/12/20, arXiv, DOI: nlin.CG/0612047
- Singing For Survival, 2006/12/21, Innovations-report
- How Learning Influences Smell, 2006/12/21, ScienceDaily & Cell Press
- Electrical Activity Alters Language Used By Nerve Cells, 2006/12/22, ScienceDaily & University Of California - San Diego
- The Change In The Daily Knowledge Of Madness In Turkey, M. Narter - meltemnarteryahoo.com, Dec. 2006, online 2006/12/14, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-5914.2006.00314.x
- Structural Path Analysis Of Ecosystem Networks, M. Lenzen - m.lenzenphysics.usyd.edu.au, Jan. 2007, online 2006/09/06, Ecological Modelling, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.07.041
- How Ants Determine The Number Of Potential Recruits, J. Rodrigues - joao.rodriguesist.utl.pt, Jan. 2007, online 2006/09/28, Ecological Modelling, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.08.003
TED Talks, TED Conferences LLC , since 2006
Talking Robots: The PodCast on Robotics and AI, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland, 06/11/03
Potentials of Complexity Science for Business, Governments, and the Media 2006, Budapest, Hungary, 06/08/03-05
- 6th Intl Conf on Complex Systems (ICCS), Boston, MA, 06/06/25-30
Artificial Life X,
10th Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, Bloomington, IN, USA. 2006/06/03-07
6th Understanding Complex Systems Symposium, Urbana-Champaign, Il, 06/05/15-18
Ralph Abraham on Complexity Digest, , Calcutta, India, 05/12/27
- An Afternoon with Michael Crichton, Washington, 05/11/06
Illuminating the Shadow of the Future, Ann Arbor, Mi 05/09/23-25
Open Network of Centres of Excellence in Complex Systems - Brainstorming Meeting, Paris, France 05/09/19-23
Complexity, Science & Society Conference 2005, U. Liverpool, UK 2005/09/11-14
ECAL 2005 - VIIIth European Conference on Artificial Life,
Canterbury, Kent, UK 2005/09/5-9
T. Irene Sanders, Executive Director and Founder, The Washington Center for Complexity & Public Policy, 05/08/27, QuickTime video (10:38 min), Podcast
- North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity 2005 Conference, Virtual Conference Network, St. Pete's Beach, Florida, 05/06/09-11
- Understanding Complex Systems - Computational Complexity and Bioinformatics, Virtual Conference Network, Urbana-Champaign, Il, UIUC, 05/05/16-19
- Nonlinearity, Fluctuations, and Complexity, with a celebration of the 65th birthday of Gregoire Nicolis. , Complexity Session, Universite' Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, 05/03/16
- World Economic Forum , Davos, Switzerland, 05/01/26-30
1st European Conference on Complex Systems, Torino, Italy, 04/12/5-7
From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela (1946-2001), Paris, France, 2004/06/18-20
Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium, 04/05/26-28
International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21
Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H., Internet-First University Press, 1994
- CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and Live Events
- Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998
- Edge Videos
- Logic, Computability and Randomness 2007 , Buenos Aires, Argentina, 07/01/10-13
Symposium on Biological Complexity Diseases of Transcription, La Jolla, CA, 07/01/11-14
The Atlas of Ideas, London,
United Kingdom, 07/01/17-18
Managing Complex Organizations in a Complex World, Cambridge, MA, 07/01/25-26
Intl Wkshp Complex Dynamics Of Physiological Systems: From Heart To Brain, Kolkata, India, 07/02/12-14
2007 Complexity and Educational Research Conference, Vancouver, BC, 07/02/18-20
Coordination Dynamics 2007: Coordination: Neural, Behavioral and Social Dynamics, Boca Raton, Florida, 07/02/22-25
2nd Transdisciplinary Workshop on the Complexity Approach
Complejidad CamagŁey-2007, CamagŁey, Cuba, 07/02/20-22
3rd International Workshop on Complexity and Philisophy, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 07/02/22-23
Intl Conf on Morphological Computation, Venice, Italy, 07/03/26-28
Unconventional Computation: Quo Vadis?, Santa Fe, NM, 07/03/20-23
Complex Social Systems Course
at the London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom, 07/03/20-28
NEXUS for Change, Bowling Green, Ohio, 07/03/22-23
4th Lake Arrowhead Conference on Human Complex Systems,
Lake Arrowhead, CA, 07/04/25-29
Intl Conf on Morphological Computation, Venice Italy, 07/03/26-28
- Complexity and Organizational Resilience
The Village, Pohnpei, Micronesia, 07/05
- 2nd Intl Conf on Built Environment Complexity - Embracing complexity thinking in built environments, Cape Town South Africa, 07/05/21-25
ECO 2007 Summit: Ecological Complexity and Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for 21st-Century Ecology, Beijing, China, 07/05/22-27
2007 IEEE/ICME Intl Conf on Complex Medical Engineering-CME2007, Beijing, China, 07/05/23-27
The 7th Intl Workshop on Meta-Synthesis and Complex Systems, Beijing, 07/05/27-30
SYMMETRY IN NONLINEAR MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS, Kiev, Ukraine, 07/06/24-30
Summer School In Complexity Science, London, UK, 07/07/08-17
2007 Genetic And Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2007), London, UK, 07/07/07-11
Natural Complexity: Data and Theory in Dialogue, Cambridge, UK, 07/08/13-17
ECAL 2oo7 - 9th European Conference on Artificial Life
, Lisbon, Portugal, 07/09/10-14
European Conference on Complex Systems 2007 (ECCS'07) , Dresden, Germany, 07/10/01-05
Call for Papers - Course/Book Announcements
- The international journal
Emergence: Complexity & Organization (E:CO) is now available. The issue contains:
Volume 8 Number 4, 2006
Special Issue: Complexity & Leadership
Editors: Jeffrey A. Goldstein & James K. Hazy
EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION IN PRACTICE
Series in Studies in Computational Intelligence, Springer Verlag,
Chapter proposal due 07/02/04
- Call for Submissions:
The Journal of Developmental Processes will publish its first issue in fall 2006. , The JDP recognizes that complex developmental processes characterize the growth of living organisms. In humans, this complexity is highly elaborated, so that developmental change is affected by many interrelated factors of the body, the mind, family, society and the environment. New discoveries continually add to our understanding of these processes and demonstrate the inadequacy of reductionist approaches.
- Call for Papers:
Special Issue of the Artificial Life journal on the Evolution of Complexity,
Digital Graphics for Quantitative Finance,
Lineplot Productions, 2006
Why create movies of financial models? Because key stakeholders often don't understand them. The mathematical, data-intensive sphere of quantitative financial analysis can be a black box even for many in the industry. It is vital for users of this analysis to appreciate, understand and buy into, often literally, these difficult and important concepts.
Life: An Introduction to Complex Systems Biology, Kunihiko Kaneko, Springer Series: Understanding Complex Systems, 2006
What is life? Has molecular biology given us a satisfactory answer to this question? And if not, why, and how to carry on from there? This book examines life not from the reductionist point of view, but rather asks the question: what are the universal properties of living systems and how can one construct from there a phenomenological theory of life that leads naturally to complex processes such as reproductive cellular systems, evolution and differentiation? The presentation has been deliberately kept fairly non-technical so as to address a broad spectrum of students and researchers from the natural sciences and informatics.
- Chaos and Complexity
Resources for Students and Teachers, 06/03/01