Managing Complexity, arXiv
Excerpt: Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. (...)
- Source: Managing Complexity, David P. Chassin, Joel Malard, Christian Posse, DOI: nlin.AO/0408051, arXiv, 2004/08/27
The Next Shock: Not Oil, but Debt, NY Times
(...) American economy is much less addicted to the black stuff than yesterday's industrial economy. From 1973 to 2003, after all, the amount of oil and gas needed to create a dollar of gross domestic product fell by half. (...)
The bad news is that other recent structural changes in the economy - the federal government's shift from surpluses to huge deficits, the national predilection for consumption over saving and housing prices that climb faster than incomes - have increased the country's reliance on another kind of fuel: credit.
Adaptation in Large-Scale Enterprise Systems, Ubiquity
Contemporary business enterprises, embodied in global corporations, are intricate organizational, technological and financial meta-systems operating under dynamic market conditions and uncertain business circumstances. We see them as large-scale, distributed systems characterized by very high complexity. They are typically heterogeneous and very dynamic, involving complex interactions among many humans, applications, services, and devices.
Enterprise Management Analytics
Consequently, enterprises are likely to contain inefficiencies (for example, unnecessary human labor or under-utilized computing resources); they are prone to poor decision-making (...) and they experience delays and latencies (...).
Letting Gamers Play God, and Now Themselves, NY Times
Excerpts: "Most role-playing games, you have to make an enormous amount of choices up front: I'm going to be a thief or a barbarian. (...)" Mr. Molyneux wanted to create a video game in which these types of choices are made with the same pace and subtlety as in real life.
And so in Fable, the player-controlled hero will end up a barbarian only after building muscles in fistfights, earning scars from combat and acquiring a heroic tan from constant journeying outdoors.
Preferential Exchange: Strengthening Connections In Complex Networks, Phys.
Abstract: Many social, technological, and biological interactions involve network relationships whose outcome intimately depends on the structure of the network and on the strengths of the connections. Yet, although much information is now available concerning the structure of many networks, the strengths are more difficult to measure. Here we show that, for one particular social network, notably the e-mail network, a suitable measure of the strength of the connections can be available. We also propose a simple mechanism, based on positive feedback and reciprocity, that can explain the observed behavior and that hints toward specific dynamics of formation and reinforcement of network connections. Network data from contexts different from social sciences indicate that power-law, and generally broad, distributions of the connection strength are ubiquitous, and the proposed mechanism has a wide range of applicability.
Social Networks And Aggressive Behaviour In Chinese Children, Int. J. Behav. Dev.
Excerpts: This exploratory study investigated Mainland Chinese children's social networks and peer group affiliations with a particular emphasis on their aggressive behaviour. The participants were 294 elementary school students in Tianjin, P. R. China (...). Social network analysis identified relatively large and gender-specific peer groups. Although different measures were used, the pattern of homophily characteristic of Western aggressive children was partially supported. This finding may be due to the large size of the peer groups. The results showed that some aggressive children formed friendships with nonaggressive children. (...) These findings illustrate how culture may be an influence on patterns of peer group affiliation.
Employment, Deterrence, And Crime In A Dynamic Model, Int. Econ. Rev.
Abstract: Using maximum likelihood techniques and monthly panel data we solve and estimate an explicitly dynamic model of criminal behavior where current criminal activity impacts future labor market outcomes. We show that the threat of future adverse effects in the labor market when arrested acts as a strong deterrent to crime. Moreover, such forward-looking behavior is estimated to be important. Hence, policies that weaken this deterrence will be much less effective in fighting crime. This suggests that prevention is more powerful than redemption since anticipated redemption allows criminals to look forward to negating the consequences of their crimes.
Virtual Warfare: The Internet As The New Site For Global Religious Conflict, Asian J. Soc. Sc.
Excerpts: This paper explores the ways in which a resurgent Hindu fundamentalism (Hindutva) is redefining Hinduism and Hindu identities in a transnational, global context. The global project of Hindutva makes use of new global communication channels, including the Internet, and is apparently espoused by influential sections of the transnational Hindu middle class, especially in the United States. This paper examines a selected sample of Internet sites devoted to the spread of religious and fundamentalist beliefs and ideas particularly relevant to India and transnational Hinduism, and explores the ways in which the Internet is changing the shape of communities (...)
ScheduleNanny: Using GPS to Learn the User's Significant Locations, Travel Times and Schedule, arXiv
Abstract: As computing technology becomes more pervasive, personal devices such as the PDA, cell-phone, and notebook should use context to determine how to act. Location is one form of context that can be used in many ways. We present a multiple-device system that collects and clusters GPS data into significant locations. These locations are then used to determine travel times and a probabilistic model of the user's schedule, which is used to intelligently alert the user. We evaluate our system and suggest how it should be integrated with a variety of applications.
Excerpts: This paper investigates whether EU research programmes have led to innovations in European social research. This is based on an assessment of a group of EU-funded projects on the changing nature of work in Europe. EU-funded projects have contributed to the creation of a European social space for European researchers, but at the cost of consolidating English as the lingua franca of European social research. Such projects tend to involve heterogeneous research actors and are oriented towards policy issues. (...) More clearly, they have ensured that social research about Europe is no longer simply comparative research. (...)
- Source: Something New In Old Europe?, J. Wickham, DOI: 10.1080/1351161042000241135, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Sciences, Sep. 2004
- Contributed by Pritha Das - prithadas01yahoo.com
Asian Americans: Achievements Mask Challenges, Asian J. Soc. Sc.
Abstract: This article focuses on the existence of the "glass ceiling" to upward career mobility experienced by Asian Americans in professional occupations. It questions the recent portrayal of Asian Americans as a "model minority" who have "made it" in America. Instead, it shows that despite their good record of achievement, Asian Americans do not reach a level at which they can participate in policy and decision-making responsibilities. This article builds on the emerging glass ceiling literature by Asian American scholars, while examining social/cultural complexities, peculiarities, and nuances in private companies, government agencies, and institutions of higher education.
Scientific Method Man, Wired
Excerpts: One of the tools in the toolkit, as he says, is a field called judgment and decisionmaking. Psychological studies suggest that experts, defined as someone with 10 years in a discipline, don't have any more reasoning power than the rest of us. What they have is tons of experience. An old doctor, for instance, has seen so many cases of the mumps that he no longer follows methodical reasoning to arrive at a diagnosis. He instead uses a shortcut called pattern-matching: face red and swollen - mumps. Next!
Biggest Bets in the Universe Unveiled, PhysicsWeb
Excerpts: Betting on the greatest unsolved problems in the universe is no longer the preserve of academic superstars such as Stephen Hawking. From Thursday anyone will be able to place bets on whether the biggest physics experiments in the world will come good before 2010. For two weeks, British-based bookmaker Ladbrokes is opening a book on five separate discoveries: life on Titan, gravitational waves, the Higgs boson, cosmic ray origins and nuclear fusion.
A World of Glass, Science
Excerpts: We are still uncertain as to why the Renaissance of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries, and the scientific and industrial revolutions of the 17th and 18th centuries took place. Nor do we understand why these sweeping changes happened in western Europe, and not in the great Islamic or Chinese civilizations.
The interplay between the availability of more reliable information and the improved manufacture of tools, instruments, and artifacts contributed to the remarkable changes that swept through western Europe.
Douglas Adams spoke of the four epochs of how we used sand, the basis of both optical as semiconductor technologies.
- Source: A World of Glass, Alan Macfarlane, Gerry Martin, Science : 1407-1408, 04/09/03
The Future Of Nanotechnology, Physics World
Excerpts: Visions of self-replicating nanomachines that could devour the Earth in a "grey goo" are probably wide of the mark, but "radical nanotechnology" could still deliver great benefits to society. The question is how best to achieve this goal
Nanotechnology is slowly creeping into popular culture, but not in a way that most scientists will like.(...)
What we could call "incremental nanotechnology" involves improving the properties of many materials by controlling their nano-scale structure. Plastics, for example, can be reinforced using nano-scale clay particles, making them stronger, stiffer and more chemically resistant.
Climate Change: Crunch Time For Kyoto, Nature
Excerpts: Unlike Europe and the United States, where most scientists strongly support efforts to limit greenhouse-gas emissions, Russia is under virtually no pressure from its scientific community to take steps to avert climate change. While the majority remains silent, a small group within the Russian Academy of Sciences speaks with nationalistic fervour about the need to avoid restrictions on the Russian economy. In post-soviet Russia, where economic hardship and growing nationalism are everyday realities, it is difficult for anyone to speak out against them.
Disaster Movie Highlights Transatlantic Divide, Nature
Excerpts: "Most people here associate climate change with heatwaves and floods," he says. "The film has made them ask: 'If this is what climate change is like, than we are no longer sure it is real'."
But the US study - (...) - shows a different picture. (...)
But of the 529 people interviewed after the film's release, half of the hundred or so who had seen it said that it had made them "somewhat or much more worried" about global warming, whereas only 1% said that they became less worried.
The More We Know, The More We See: The Role Of Visuality In Media Literacy, Ameri. Behav. Sc.
Excerpts: The role of visual perception in media literacy is paramount in understanding the shift from a linear perceptual process (literacy) to a holistic perceptual process (visuality) by which almost all information is now transmitted through the visual forms of mass media: television, film, and the Internet. The media-literate individual must be educated in the processes of visual perception and how the media use the visual channels to transmit, and often distort, information. (...) The more we know the more we see-as well as the next most important axiom: What is not seen is as important as what is seen.
Brain May Produce its Own Antipsychotic Drug, New Scientist
Contibuting Editor's Note: Among different neurotransmitters, which are present in the human neurvous system, there is a group of them called canabinoids, which activate canabinoid receptors. Nowadays there are three different groups in the general group of canabinoids: herbal (Tetrahydrocannabinol-THC, the psychoactive ingredient of cannabis sativa), synthetic and endogenous. Neurtotransmitter anandamide belongs to the latter. Anandamide is similar to THC in its pharamacological effects but weaker in strength. Both are binding to the receptors which are found primarly in the brain, and reproductive system.
Excerpts: Heavy cannabis use has been linked to psychosis in the past, leading researchers to look for a connection between the brain's natural cannabinoid system and schizophrenia. (...) [When the team of researches] looked at levels of the natural cannabis-like substance anandamide, they were higher in people with schizophrenia than in healthy controls. (...) [Researches] found, to their surprise, that the more severe people's schizophrenia was the lower their anandamide levels. The team's theory is that rather than triggering psychosis, the substance is released in response to psychotic symptoms to help control them. People with the worst symptoms might be unable to produce sufficient anandamide to prevent them.(...) But people with schizophrenia who use cannabis actually have more severe and frequent psychotic episodes than those who do not. This may be because THC makes anandamide receptors less sensitive.
Rare Deficit Maps Thinking Circuitry, ScienceDaily
Excerpts: Using brain imaging, neuroscientists (...) have pinpointed the site of a defect in a brain circuit associated with a specific thinking deficit. Their study demonstrates how a rare genetic disorder, Williams Syndrome, can offer clues as to how genetic flaws may translate into cognitive symptoms in more common and complex major mental disorders. (...) traced the thinking deficit to a circuit at the back of the brain that processes locations of objects in the visual field. (...) The study focused on the inability to visualize an object as a set of parts and then construct a replica, as in assembling a puzzle (...).
Scientists View 'Dark Side' Of The Body, ScienceDaily
Excerpts: Even the tiniest paper cut kicks the immune system into action. Infection-fighting white blood cells, called neutrophils, rush to the site of injury and initiate inflammation. Calling for back up, the neutrophils quickly recruit more of their kind to the scene, and commence to kill any bacteria they find. The skirmishes and casualties cause the skin around the cut to swell and redden until, victory in sight, the first wave of inflammation subsides. (...) Yet these defensive forces have a dark side as well. Unchecked, raging inflammation can damage the very tissues the immune system is designed to protect. (...)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Mouse Neurons From Deterioration, Science Now
Excerpts: People who eat a lot of omega-3 fatty acids--the famous fat from fish--are less likely to get Alzheimer's disease, but no one knows how the fats protect the brain from damage. A new study with mice, however, provides some intriguing clues.
The omega-3 fatty acid known as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) abounds in healthy neurons. But in Alzheimer's brains, it appears to get trashed by the amyloid protein that makes up the damaging plaques that characterize the disease.
The Emergence of Competition Between Model Protocells, Science
Abstract: The transition from independent molecular entities to cellular structures with integrated behaviors was a crucial aspect of the origin of life. We show that simple physical principles can mediate a coordinated interaction between genome and compartment boundary, independent of any genomic functions beyond self-replication. RNA, encapsulated in fatty acid vesicles, exerts an osmotic pressure on the vesicle membrane that drives the uptake of additional membrane components, leading to membrane growth at the expense of relaxed vesicles, which shrink. Thus, more efficient RNA replication could cause faster cell growth, leading to the emergence of Darwinian evolution at the cellular level.
Longevity, Quality, and the One-Hoss Shay, Science
Excerpts: The task of aging-related research and geriatric medicine is to improve the quality of life during a period in which some loss of function is the order of the day. And the research reported in this issue, (...), is beginning to suggest how cell and tissue death relate to organismal aging. How is replication failure related to cellular senescence? What is the role of telomere shortening and telomerase expression?
At the whole-organism level, we know that caloric restriction has a pronounced effect in promoting longevity
Human Ancestors Quickly Found Their Feet, NewScientist
Excerpts: Hominids started walking on two legs six million years ago, shortly after diverging from chimpanzees, according to a study of the inner structure of a fossilised thighbone. The finding puts upright posture at the base of the human family tree.
The evolution of upright posture is a key issue in anthropology. Together with large brain size, it marks the dividing line between humans and the great apes.
Researchers know that upright posture evolved first because the skeleton of famed Australopithecine, Lucy, has a small braincase but modern ankles.
Humans March To A Faster Genetic "Drummer" Than Primates, bio.com
Excerpts: A team of biochemists from UC Riverside published a paper that gives one explanation for why humans and primates are so closely related genetically, but so clearly different biologically and intellectually.
"The explosive expansion of the DNA repeats and the resulting restructuring of our genetic code may be the clue to what makes us human," Dugaiczyk said. ?During the same amount of time, humans accumulated more genetic novelties than chimpanzees, making the human/chimpanzee genetic distance larger than that between the chimpanzee and gorilla.?
Metaphorically speaking, Dugaiczyk said, ?Humans and primates march to the rhythm of a drum that looks identical; the same size, shape and sound. But, the human drum beats faster.
Evolutionary Biology: Time, Space And Genomes, Nature
Excerpts: In most animals, the Hox genes - which control development - are clustered together. But why? New evidence supports the idea that the requirement for a temporal order of expression keeps the cluster intact.
(...) Genetic studies in fruitflies first showed that these genes have a major role in producing the head-to-tail (anterior-posterior) pattern of tissues along the body axis. (...) the order of these genes along a chromosome correlates with the anterior-posterior position of the body regions they control, and with the domains in which the genes are expressed.
Bonemaking Protein Tied To Beak Diversity In Darwin's Finches, Science Now
Darwin's finches, with their varied beaks, are often cited as a perfect example of how new species arise by exploiting ecological niches. Now developmental biologists have added a new twist to this classic story. (...) a protein normally associated with the development of the skull and other bones is one of the molecules that tailors the shapes of beaks.
Pecking away. Researchers now know that a protein is key to the diversity of beaks in Darwin's finches.
Credit: A. Abzhanov et al.
The researchers looked at finch embryos at different points in development, documenting when and where the genes for 10 growth factors were expressed among the six species.
Molecular Shaping of the Beak, Science
Excerpts: Beak shape is a classic example of evolutionary diversification. Beak development in chicken and duck was used to examine morphological variations among avian species. There is only one proliferative zone in the frontonasal mass of chickens, but two in ducks. These growth zones are associated with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) activity. (...)
The excess BMP4 resulted in longer, wider, and deeper beaks, Wu and his colleagues report. When they did the reverse experiment, adding a gene whose protein counteracts BMP4, the beaks ended up smaller than normal.
- Source: Molecular Shaping of the Beak, Ping Wu, Ting-Xin Jiang, Sanong Suksaweang, Randall Bruce Widelitz, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Science : 1465-1466., 04/09/03
Fossils' Regenerated Appendages Tell A Tale Of Escalating Predation, Science Now
By counting the chewed-off arms on fossil crinoids, researchers have shown that these filter-feeding cousins of starfish suffered ever fiercer attacks during a period when fish and other major predators were diversifying.(...)
Life and limb. Crinoids fossilized while regrowing damaged arms (arrow) bear witness to ancient dangers.
Credit: Forest J. Gahn
Just as swords inspired the invention of chain mail, the history of life hints at many arms races between predators and prey. But with the remnants of the carnage long turned to stone, it can be difficult to prove that the evolution of bigger teeth, for instance, actually did encourage the evolution of defenses such as thicker armor.
Cell Biology: Regulated Self-Cannibalism, Nature
Excerpts: Cells consume parts of themselves to survive starvation and during development. But how do they control this process of self-eating so that it begins at the right time and does not end up killing the cell?
(...), when a cell is deprived of nutrients it will degrade some of its own constituents to stay alive. It does this by the process of autophagy - literally, 'self-eating'.(...)
How does a cell or organism sense its environment and trigger an appropriate signal to induce or suppress autophagy?
Cancer: Cell Survival Guide, Nature
Excerpts: A jaded observer might consider the cancer research field near maturity and surprising new results improbable. But work on the protein netrin-1 shows that unforeseen insights into cancer can still occur.
Named from the Sanskrit word for 'one who guides', the netrin-1 protein was discovered because of its ability to direct the migration of axons in the developing spinal cord. The functions of netrin proteins in axon guidance and neural cell migration have consequently received much attention (...). But (...) netrin-1 might offer unanticipated guidance for the cancer field as well.
MIT Team Explains Yin-Yang Of Ginseng, bio.com
Excerpts: Conflicting scientific articles report that ginseng can both promote the growth of blood vessels (...) and stymie that process. The latter is important because preventing the formation of blood vessels can be enlisted against cancer. (...)
Chemical fingerprints of four different varieties of ginseng--American, Chinese, Korean and Sanqi--show that each has different proportions of two key ingredients. (...) preponderance of one ingredient has positive effects on the growth of blood vessels; more of the other component tips the scale the other way.
Brain Scans Reveal Differences In Dyslexics Who Speak Different Types Of Languages, Science Now
(...) the kind of language you learn can influence how language areas in the brain develop. (...) interventions for reading disorders such as dyslexia may need to be modified for various languages.
Juggling languages. Understanding Chinese involves different brain regions (red) than understanding English (green) does. Chinese speakers with dyslexia have more brain activity in some areas (blue) than do dyslexic English speakers.
Credit: Wai Ting Siok
Dyslexia seems to be rooted in the left temporoparietal region of the brain, at least for native speakers of alphabet-based languages (...). Reading such languages involves converting letters into sounds. Reading a symbol-based language, such as Chinese, is vastly different; it requires remembering what each character looks like, how it is pronounced, and what it means.
Pollution Triggers Bizarre Behaviour In Animals, NewScientist
Excerpts: Hyperactive fish, stupid frogs, fearless mice and seagulls that fall over. It sounds like a weird animal circus, but this is no freak show. Animals around the world are increasingly behaving in bizarre ways, and the cause is environmental pollution. (...)
Low concentrations of these pollutants are changing both the social and mating behaviours of a raft of species. This potentially poses a far greater threat to survival than, for example, falling sperm counts caused by higher chemical concentrations.
Scattering Poop Around Their Nests Helps Burrowing Owls Lure Tasty Beetles, Science Now
Burrowing owls consume all manner of small creatures, but dung beetles are a staple. Could dung help lure the owls' favorite food? (...)The remains of the owls' meals showed that the birds ate 10 times as many dung beetles when their burrows were surrounded by cow manure. "The owls spend a lot of time standing right by their burrows," Levey says. "It's like they've got a line in the water like fishermen, and they're sitting waiting for something to come."
Waiting for a bite. A burrowing owl stands guard over dung piles that help attract tasty beetles.
Credit: Ronald J. Wolff
Flying Fox Favours Tunnel Vision, BBC News
A colony of Livingstone's fruit bats, whose wingspan can reach 5ft (1.5m), has been kept at Jersey zoo in the Channel Islands for the last 12 years.
The colony helps to sustain its environment
A number of the bats have now started to fly through a purpose-built tunnel in their enclosure in search of food.
The zoo, HQ of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, is one of only two global sites where the bats are kept.
Livingstone's fruit bat (...), is thought to be at risk of imminent extinction because of the loss of its forest habitat.
Single Gene Removes Sex Differences In Mice Brains, NewScientist
Excerpts: Significant structural differences in the brains of males and females may result from selective cell death orchestrated by just a single gene during early development, (...).
Extensive research in rats has demonstrated that these differences are determined by the presence or absence of the hormone testosterone in early life.
If a male rat is castrated shortly after birth, its BNST and AVPV will develop in the female pattern. Conversely, if a female rat pup is treated with testosterone its adult brain will be indistinguishable from a male's.
Theoretical Biology: Mushrooms In Cyberspace, Nature
Excerpts: Mushrooms arise largely from the inflation of pre-existing cells, which in part accounts for the startling speed with which they can appear. But what developmental processes are responsible for shaping those cells first into the primordial mushroom structure and then into the full-grown 'fruiting body' itself? (...) They have grown cyber fungi like the mushroom shown here. As well as creating primordial fruiting bodies whose cell arrangements mimic the real things, the authors' computer models provide predictions that can be tested.
Stem Cells From Hair Follicles Regenerate Skin And Hair In Mice, Science Now
In the past few years researchers have ascertained that stem cells contained in the "bulge" of hair follicles are capable of producing both skin and hair. But it hasn't been clear whether the bulge contains many kinds of progenitor cells--each giving rise to a different tissue--or whether there are "multipotent" stem cells that are capable of generating skin, hair, or oil-producing sebaceous glands.
Cellular patch kit. Individual stem cells isolated from mouse hair follicles can develop into normal hair-bearing skin.
Credit: C. Blanpain Et Al., Cell (2 September 2004)
Now researchers at Rockefeller University in New York City say they have proven that the cells are multipotent, (...).
Bending Sound The 'Wrong' Way Sharpens Scans, NewScientist
Ultrasound scans could soon be much more detailed, thanks to a novel material that can bend sound waves the "wrong" way. This property, known as negative refraction, means the material should bring sound waves to a focus far sharper than today's medical scanners.
Negative sound refraction
Negative refraction of light was predicted in the 1970s by (...) Victor Veselago, but it was not actually achieved until 2000.
Then in 2001, John Pendry, (...), predicted that using negative refraction in lenses could generate images with a much higher resolution than is usually possible
Finally, a Car That Talks Back, Wired
Excerpts: Using voice-recognition and text-to-speech technology from IBM, the 2005 Acura RL, available in October, and Honda Odyssey, available in September, will produce maps and "speak" turn-by-turn directions from the navigation system. Drivers will also be able to make phone calls or crank up the air conditioning, all while keeping their eyes on the road and their hands on the wheel.(...)
She said the voice-recognition system was designed to work in the presence of ambient sounds such as air conditioning or a racing engine.
Software Solutions for Self-organizing Multimedia-Appliances, Computers & Graphics
Excerpt: The vision of Ambient Intelligence is based on the ubiquity of information technology, the presence of computation, communication, and sensorial capabilities in an unlimited abundance of everyday appliances and environments. But enabling an ensemble of devices to spontaneously act and cooperate coherently requires software technologies that support self-organization. (...)
See Also: ComDig 2004.18.09
Physics And Music: Brothers In Art, Nature
Excerpts: Piers Coleman is a theoretical physicist, his brother Jaz a musician with an unusual pedigree. Together, they want to break down boundaries between science and the arts. (...)
Music of the Quantum was commissioned by the Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter, a network of researchers that aims to advance condensed-matter science (see 'Small science thinks big' ). It premiered in 2003 at Columbia University in New York, on the weekend that the United States invaded Iraq. (...) most New Yorkers remained glued to their TV sets.
Statistical Physics: Hear The Noise, Nature
Excerpts: At the nanoscale, thermal fluctuations and noise dominate. But instead of being a hindrance, the details of the noise itself can reveal the physical properties of the system. (...)
In 1905, Einstein pointed out a subtle consequence of the fluctuations in classical brownian motion: the same random forces that make a pollen particle jitter would also cause friction (...).
(...) 'listening' to the intrinsic noise of a system in equilibrium can provide the same information as does probing it with an external field (...).
Earthquake Theory Shaken, Science Now
(...)at least 30 earthquakes over the last 6000 years. (...) The result is the most complete long-term record of activity for any fault in the world. And it contradicts the conventional wisdom: Shorter quiet periods of less than a century were generally followed by larger earthquakes, and longer periods of several hundred years preceded smaller quakes. Although this appears counterintuitive, the larger pattern is more logical. It appears that strain is not released entirely with each earthquake but continues to accumulate through four or five or more earthquake cycles.
San Francisco 1906. Scientists may have to rethink their ideas about when the next "big one" will hit California.
Mission Inside The Fault Zone, BBC News
Excerpts: (...) researchers are aiming to drill directly into the heart of the San Andreas fault.
The main shaft has already reached a depth of about one and half miles (2.5km) and the drill-bit has now been turned to run at an angle, to penetrate the fault from the side.
Nothing so ambitious has ever been attempted before and the excitement among the scientists is palpable.
The aim of the Safod (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) project is to gather as much data as possible before, during and after earthquakes.
Planet Formation: The Core Problem, Nature
Excerpts: Controversy over shock-wave experiments on the compression of hydrogen has broad implications - for understanding the cores of Jupiter and Saturn, and even the formation of extrasolar planets.
In July of this year, NASA announced that it will fund further study of a proposed mission to Jupiter, as part of its New Frontiers programme1. A prime objective of this orbiter mission, called Juno, would be to measure Jupiter's gravitational and magnetic fields at very close range, to discern whether the planet has a dense core.
Tough Decisions - How And When You Make Them Says A Lot About You, Darwinmag.com
Excerpts: While many managers feel their bosses defer the tough calls, the majority of them say they themselves deal with the difficult decisions immediately. In a nationwide survey over a base of 2,000 senior executives and managers, NFI Research found that 62 percent of executives and managers deal with making the tough decision at work right away, and 58 percent after getting opinions from others.
However, a third of those same businesspeople say their superiors defer the tough calls and a third wait until absolutely necessary. Almost 40 percent of managers say their superiors defer the tough decisions, while a fourth of them say their bosses either avoid the tough decision or focus on those that are easier.
Good Schools or Bad? Conflicting Ratings Leave Parents Baffled, NY Times
Excerpts: The conflict between state and federal evaluations has confused hundreds of communities (...). In Florida, Gov. Jeb Bush announced that the state had rated more than two-thirds of Florida's 3,100 schools as high-performing. But three-quarters were rated as low-performing under the federal law.
The mixed messages are creating headaches for hundreds of thousands of American parents considering whether to transfer their children, an option available when a school is declared low-performing for two years in a row because it missed the targets of the federal law, (...).
These divergent evaluations indicate a need for more coherent assessment methods, which act as evolutionary fitness parameters that guide school children as complex adaptive agents in the educational system.
Denying the Troops a Secret Ballot, NY Times
Excerpts: Members of the military will be allowed to vote this year by faxing or e-mailing their ballots - after waiving their right to a secret ballot. Beyond this fundamentally undemocratic requirement, the Electronic Transmission Service, as it's known, has far too many problems to make it reliable, starting with the political partisanship of the contractor running it. The Defense Department is making matters worse by withholding basic information about the service, (...).
The Defense Department is encouraging soldiers to use absentee ballots or fax votes (...).
Editor's Note: We were told at school that communist Eastern Germany was not a democracy because there voters had the option of waiving their right to a secret ballot. As a result whole communities would openly waive their rights and joyously and openly vote for the communist party. Whoever dared to insist on the right for a secret ballot was immediately denounced to be an enemy of the communist state.
Complex Challenges: Global Terroist Networks
Mr. Bush and the Truth About Terror, NY Times
Excerpts: President Bush was absolutely right when he said it was impossible to win a war against terrorism - it's like announcing we can win a war against violence. Terrorism can only be minimized and controlled, and that can be done only with a worldwide strategy, joined by all of the world's sensible and peaceful nations. (...)
The chances of a serious dialogue about terror took a blow, of course, when Mr. Bush retracted his completely sensible statement about terrorism after the Kerry-Edwards campaign attacked it.
Pakistan Dismisses US Contention Of Progress In Bin Laden Hunt, Boston Globe
Excerpts: Pakistani officials dismissed a top US counterterrorism official's contention of progress in the hunt for Osama bin Laden, saying yesterday that Pakistan does not have any information on the Al Qaeda leader's whereabouts.
The top government spokesman, Sheikh Rashid Ahmed, said the recent comments about bin Laden by Joseph Cofer Black, the US State Department coordinator for counterterrorism, were a "political statement." (...)
Asked whether concrete progress had been made during the past two months in capturing the world's most-wanted fugitive, Black said, "Yes, I would say this."
Putin Refuses To Talk With 'Child Killers', CBC News
Excerpts: Russian President Vladimir Putin fired back at suggestions from Western leaders that he should negotiate with Chechen separatists in the wake of the Beslan school siege that left 335 dead.
In an interview with Britain's Guardian newspaper, Putin asked how it is possible to negotiate with heavily armed militants, like those involved in the school hostage taking.
He accused western leaders of applying a double standard when it comes to terrorism. (...)
"No one has a moral right to tell us to talk to child killers," Putin said.
Links & Snippets
- Cancer Flip-Flop: Gene acts in both proliferation and control of growth, Scientists have identified what might be a new class of cancer-controlling genes that alternates between halting and promoting cancer.
- Cancer Flip-Flop: Gene acts in both proliferation and control of growth, Scientists have identified what might be a new class of cancer-controlling genes that alternates between halting and promoting cancer.
- Coupled Oscillator Systems Of Cultured Cardiac Myocytes: Fluctuation And Scaling Properties, Mitsuru Yoneyama, Koichi Kawahara, 04/08, Phys. Rev. E 70, 021904
- Spatiotemporal Structures In A Model With Delay And Diffusion, M. Bestehorn, E. V. Grigorieva, S. A. Kaschenko, 04/08, Phys. Rev. E 70, 026202
- Noise-Aided Synchronization Of Coupled Chaotic Electrochemical Oscillators, István Z. Kiss, John L. Hudson, J. Escalona, P. Parmananda, 04/08, Phys. Rev. E 70, 026210
- Mysterious Signals From 1000 Light Years Away, Eugenie Samuel Reich, 04/09/01, New Scientist
- Caller ID Spoofing Service Debuts, Paul Travis, 04/09/01, InformationWeek, Star38's service disguises who is making the call but will only be sold to collection agencies, private investigators, and law-enforcement personnel.
- Could Space Signal Be Alien Contact?, 04/09/02,
- Botany: A New Self-Pollination Mechanism, Yingqiang Wang, Dianxiang Zhang, Susanne S. Renner, Zhongyi Chen, 04/09/02, Nature 431, 39 - 40.Pollen grains from most flowering plants are transported by wind or animals and deposited on the receptive surface of the stigma of a different individual, but self-pollination is also common.
, DOI: 10.1038/431039b
- Pakistan Found to Aid Iran Nuclear Efforts, David E. Sange, 04/09/02, NYTimes
- Wider FBI Probe Of Pentagon Leaks Includes Chalabi , Robin Wright, Thomas E. Ricks, Washington Post, 04/09/03
- Physical Limits to Communication, Seth Lloyd, Vittorio Giovannetti, Lorenzo Maccone, 04/09/03, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 100501
- Bloch-Front Turbulence in a Periodically Forced Belousov-Zhabotinsky Reaction, Bradley Marts, Aric Hagberg, Ehud Meron, Anna L. Lin, 04/09/03, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 108305
- PHYSICS: Crystalline Electron Pairs, Marcel Franz, 04/09/03, Science : 1410-1411
- Targeting Apoptotic Pathways in Cancer Cells, Catherine Denicourt, Steven F. Dowdy, 04/09/03, Science : 1411-1413
- Bonemaking Protein Shapes Beaks of Darwin's Finches, Elizabeth Pennisi, 04/09/03, Science : 1383
- 400-Million-Year-Old Wounds Reveal a Time When Predators Romped, Erik Stokstad, 04/09/03, Science : 1386
- Making Sense of Tourette's, Steve Olson, 04/09/03, Science : 1390-1392
- Problems Abound in Election System, Outmoded Machinery Is Still Widespread, Jo Becker, Dan Keating, 04/09/05, Washington Post
- Heart Remodels Itself After Coronary Treatment, 04/09/06, Reuters
- Fast Simulation of Multicomponent Dynamic Systems, Boris D. Lubachevsky, 2004/05/22, arXiv, DOI: cs.DS/0405077
- The Number and Probability of Canalizing Functions, Winfried Just, Ilya Shmulevich, John Konvalina, 2004/08/27, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, Article in Press, Corrected Proof, DOI: 10.1016/j.physd.2004.07.002
- Most Heart Attacks are Easily Predictable, 2004/08/29, Reuters
- Does Telomere Elongation in Cloned Organisms Lead to a Longer Lifespan if Cancer is Considered?, M. Masa, S. Cebrat, D. Stauffer, 2004/08/30, arXiv, DOI: q-bio.PE/0408026
- Facial Resemblance Increases The Attractiveness Of Same-Sex Faces More Than Other-Sex Faces, L. M. DeBruine, 2004/08/31, Alphagalileo & Proceedings B (Biological Sciences)
- Evolution Of Mammals: Lactation Helps Mothers To Cope With Unreliable Food Supplies, S. R. X. Dall, I. L. Boyd, 2004/08/31, Alphagalileo & Proceedings B (Biological Sciences)
- Cannabinoid Inhibition Improves Memory In Food-Storing Birds, But With A Cost, T. J. DeVoogd, M. W. Shiflett, A. Z. Rankin, M. L. Tomaszycki, 2004/08/31, Alphagalileo & Proceedings B (Biological Sciences)
- Mathematics, Biology, and Physics: Interactions and Interdependence, Michael C. Mackey, Moises Santillan, 2004/09/01, arXiv, DOI: q-bio.OT/0409001
- Cheating In Nature: Why Rotting Food Could Hold The Key, B. Allen, email@example.com, 2004/09/01, Alphagalileo & British Ecological Society
- "Moral Case For Iraq War" Key To Initial Public Support - Research, B. Gammon - becky.gammonesrc.ac.uk, 2004/09/03, Alphagalileo & Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
- Identifying Tick Genes Could Halt Disease, Bioterrorism Threat, 2004/09/03, ScienceDaily & Purdue University
- Social Networks And Crime Decisions: The Role Of Social Structure In Facilitating Delinquent Behavior, A. C.-Armengol, Y. Zenou, Aug. 2004, International Economic Review, DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-6598.2004.00292.x
- An On-The-Job Search Model Of Crime, Inequality, And Unemployment, K. Burdett, R. Lagos, R. Wright, Aug. 2004, International Economic Review, DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-6598.2004.00283.x
- Not By Bread Alone: Symbolic Loss, Trauma, And Recovery In Elephant Communities, I. G. A. Bradshaw, Jul. 2004, Society and Animals, DOI: 10.1163/1568530041446535
- It's A Dog's Life: Elevating Status From Pet To "Fur Baby" At Yappy Hour, J. Greenebaum, Jul. 2004, Society and Animals, DOI: 10.1163/1568530041446544
- The Internet As Distributor And Mirror Of Religious And Ritual Knowledge, O. Krueger, Jun. 2004, Asian Journal of Social Science, DOI: 10.1163/1568531041705077
- Proposing The Content Perception Theory For The Online Content Industry - A Structural Equation Modeling, K.-F. Peng, Y.-W. Fan, T.-A. Hsu, Jun. 2004, Industrial Management & Data Systems, DOI: 10.1108/02635570410543780
- Are Children Able To Distinguish Among The Concepts Of Aloneness, Loneliness, And Solitude?, E. Galanaki, Sep. 2004, International Journal of Behavioral Development, DOI: 10.1080/01650250444000153
- China's Competitive Performance: A Threat To East Asian Manufactured Exports?, S. Lall, M. Albaladejo, Sep. 2004, online 2004/07/17, World Development, DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.03.006
The 4th Intl Workshop on Meta-synthesis and Complex System, Beijing, China, 04/07/22-23
Intl Conf on Complex Networks: Structure, Function and Processes, Kolkata, India, 04/06/27-30
From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela (1946-2001), Paris, France, 2004/06/18-20
ECC8 Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,
Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium, 04/05/26-28
International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21
Life, a Nobel Story, Brussels, Belgium, 04/04/28
Nonlinear Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics Days, Brussels, Belgium, 04/04/26-27
Science Education Forum for Chinese Language Culture, Panel Discussion, Taipei, Taiwan, 04/05/01
Biologically Inspired Approaches to Advanced Information Technology, , Lausanne,Switzerland, 04/01/29-30
Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H., Internet-First University Press, 1994
- World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland
- Riding the Next Democratic Wave, Al-Thani, Khan, Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25
- The Future of Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie, Annan, Martin, Schwab, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25
- Why Victory Against Terrorism Demands Shared Values
- CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And Intelligent Systems, 2004 Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10
- EVOLVABILITY & INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of Communication, Signaling, and Perception in the Dynamics of Social Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10
- The Semantic Web and Language Technology - Its Po tential and Practicalities, Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08
- ECAL 2003, 7th European Conference on Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany, 03/09/14-17
- New Santa Fe Institute President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role, (Video, Santa Fe, NM, 03/06/04)
- SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM, 2003/06/01-04
- NAS Sackler Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio Report, 03/05/11
- 13th Ann Intl Conf, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life Sciences, Boston, MA, USA, 2003/08/08-10
- CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and Live Events
- Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998
- Edge Videos
Conference & Call for Papers Announcements
Gabriele Leidloff, Ugly Casting 1.4 , Berlin, Germany, 04/08/19-10/08
An Inquiry into Systems, Emergence, Levels of Reality,
and Forms of Causality, Trento, Italy,
Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems
(ALIFE9), Boston, Massachusetts, 04/09/12-15
- Dynamics Days 2004, XXIV Annual Conf
Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 04/09/13-17
- II. Socrates Workshop on Chaotic Systems,
Maribor, Slovenia, 04/09/13-17
- Inquiries, Indices and Incommensurabilities: Managing Emergence, Complexity and Organization,
Washington, DC, 04/09/18-19
- Neuroeconomics 2004, Charleston, SC, 04/09/16-19
- New Economic Windows 2004: Complexity Hints for Economic Policy, Salerno, Italy, 04/09/16-18
Verhulst 200 on Chaos, Brussels, BELGIUM, 04/09/16-18
8th Intl Conf on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature
(PPSN VIII), Birmingham, UK, 04/09/18-22
Nonlinear Waves in Fluids: Recent Advances and Modern Applications, Udine, Italy, 04/09/18-22
- XVII Brazilian
Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Sao Luis, Maranhao -
- 2nd Annual Emerging Technologies Conference at MIT, Cambridge, MA, 04/09/29-30
- 3rd Natll Conf on Systems Science ,
Trento (Italy), 04/10/07-09
- TEDMED Conference ,
Charleston SC, 04/10/12-15
- Intl Workshop On Bifurcations In Nonsmooth And Hybrid Dynamical Systems ,
Milano (Italy), 04/10/21-22
Technology Conference, Champaign, Illinois,
- 6th Intl Conf on Electronic Commerce
ICEC'2004: Towards A New Services Landscape, Delft, The Netherlands, 04/10/25-27
- Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference , Rio de Janeiro, 04/11
ICDM '04: The Fourth IEEE Intl Conf on Data Mining, Brighton, UK, 04/11/01-04
- Denaturing Darwin: International Conference on Evolution and Organization
, Amersfoort, The Netherlands, 04/11/12-14
- The 7th Asia-Pacific Complex Systems Conference, Queensland, Australia, 04/12/06-10
- 17th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Queensland, Australia, 04/12/06-10
- Cellular Computing Symposium, U Warwick
- International Conference On Computational Intelligence (Icci 2004) , Istanbul, Turkey, 04/12/15-17
- Kondratieff Waves, Warfare And World Security, NATO Advanced Research Workshop
, Covilh? Portugal, 05/02/14-17
5th Creativity And Cognition Conference, London.UK, 05/04/12-15
- Powders & Grains 2005, Stuttgart, Germany, 05/06/18-22
- Workshop on Complexity and Policy Analysis, Cork, Ireland, 05/06/22-24
18th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF 2005), Salamanca, Spain, 05/09/19-23