From Optimal Measurement to Efficient Quantum Algorithms for the Hidden Subgroup Problem over Semidirect Product Groups, SFI Working Papers
We approach the hidden subgroup problem by performing the so-called pretty good measurement on hidden subgroup states. For various groups that can be expressed as the semidirect product of an abelian group and a cyclic group, we show that the pretty good measurement is optimal and that its probability of success and unitary implementation are closely related to an average-case algebraic problem. By solving this problem, we find efficient quantum algorithms for a number of nonabelian hidden subgroup problems, including some for which no efficient algorithm was previously known: certain metacyclic groups as well as all groups of the form $(bold Z)_p^r semi-direct (bold Z)_p$ for fixed $r$ (including the Heisenberg group, $r=2$). In particular, our results show that entangled measurements across multiple copies of hidden subgroup states can be useful for efficiently solving the nonabelian HSP.